Race in Latin America

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Race in Latin America by Mind Map: Race in Latin America

1. Impact of the French and Haitian Revolutions, Davis

1.1. For Haiti was "the original pioneer emanc:pator of theniheteefith century."

1.2. In this broad sense the Haitian Revolution surely contributed to the British government's decisions, beginning in 1797,to limit the expansion of plantation argriculture in Trinidad, an undeveloped frontier which Britain had just seized from Spain.

1.3. The Haitian Revolution impinged in one way or another on the entire emancipation debate from the British parliamentary move in 1792 to outlaw the African slave trade to Brazil's final abolition of slavery ninety six years later.

1.4. The French emancipation decree of 1794 was a crucial precedent, successfully defended by the blacks of Saint- Dominque against Spanish, English, and then Napoleon's best French troops; this abolition of slavery was embodied in constitution of Haiti.

2. Mexican Revolution

3. Racism Revolution, and Indigenismo,1910-1940

3.1. Modern Mexico is a racial mix.

3.2. The modern Mexican population is however, a mixture of several groups who displayed contrasting somatic features. Other "racial " groups blacks, in particular also contributed to this mix, but in this chapter it is the fundamental Indian/Spanish polarity that will be considered.

3.3. The process of mestizaje, sometimes seen as basically racial, is in fact social; "mestizo" is an achieved as well as an ascribed status even though achievement may be difficult and, in the case of communities, may span decades.

3.4. Mexico's population was "Indian" at the time of the Revolution, Manuel Gamiochiefly by adding in Central Mexican "Indians," such as those of Morelos arrived at an estimate of two-thirds.

3.5. The Revolution that began in 1910 could be fought on the basis of considerable Indian participation (more so if the broad definition of "Indian" is adopted), but in the absence of any self-consciously Indian project.

4. Race in Argentina and Cuba, 1880-1930

4.1. Between 1880 and 1930 Hispanic American intellectuals were strongly influenced by positivism, social Darwinism, geographical determinism, and many racial theories emanating from Europe.

4.1.1. Materials

4.1.2. Personel

4.1.3. Services

4.1.4. Duration

4.2. Many Creole intellectuals proposed to imitate Argentina's process of "whitening" through European immigration in order to achieve economic development and civilization.

4.3. Cuba only achieved independence from Spain in 1898, thanks to the heavy participation in the liberation wars of Afro-Cubans on the side of Creoles.

4.4. In Nuestra America Carlos Octavio Bunge aimed at a global analysis of Latin America focusing on what he considered to be its key problem: its ethic composition.

4.5. Nina Rodrigues, Raimundo (1862-1906), is a Brazilian physician, one of the first social scientists to study Afro-Brazilian culture and particularly Brazilian religious syncretism.

5. Racial ideas and Social Policy in Brazil, 1870-1940

5.1. Brazil received more African slaves than any other country in the Americas.

5.1.1. Dependencies

5.1.2. Milestones

5.2. In this atmosphere of liberal agitation, race was seldom discussed per se; instead, liberals talked about slavery.

5.2.1. KPI's

5.3. Rio Branco, like other Brazilian leaders, knew well that his country was looked down on as an African potpourri by Argentines, who were far more successful, in relative terms, than Brazil in attracting European immigrants.

5.4. Instead of two exclusive ethnic categories, it presupposed a miraculous movement from black in the direction of white.

5.5. The whitening ideology was Brazilian compromise.

6. Brazil: A racial paridise

7. French Revolution

8. Raimundo Nina Rodrigues

9. Haitian Revolution