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What scientific or technological advances have MOST affected modern life in your country? by Mind Map: What
scientific or
have MOST
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What scientific or technological advances have MOST affected modern life in your country?


Examples of Computers

Benefits of Computers (internet)

Opens new horizons to students in researching information for class assignments etc.

Helps to gather career-related facts to start people on a productive path towards those directions

speeds up the ability to make corrections and distribute documents

helps students build skills that they would not otherwise have gotten in a conventional classroom, basic computer programs - word processing, databases, spreadsheets, etc.

Costs of Computers

Irreplaceable for some manual work, actual practicing of spelling, developing motor skills, Learning from Human Beings V.S. Learning from some Cold Machine

Academics, Unsupervised access to the internet hinders students' grades, spending their time texting each other, surfing the web for personal interests, instead of academic uses, pay less attention to what they're being told during class, neglect simple arithmetic, impairing them when they continue their mathematical studies., just punch in the numbers in the calculator rather than think of the answer, Age of 'cut-and-paste', amount of mental processing is greatly reduced, so dependant on the computer that they will not wish to do the assignment with just pencil and paper, receiver is duped into accepting something shallow and glossy

Cost quite a lot of money to buy and maintain, Elementary schools are full of children who are careless and sometimes wild, which can lead to repeated damage to the technological devices being used

medical technologies

Pharmeceutical industries

Ability to invent and use Vaccines, AIDS Vaccine, H1N1 Vaccine, Prevented an epidemic from turning into a pandemic. stop the spread of diseases, Singapore developed rapid test for SARS, The Genelabs Diagnostics Pte Ltd(GLD) and the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB) have combined forces to develop a test kit for SARs which is capable of producing results within 15 minutes, Assists healthcare and clinical professionals worldwide to engage in better patient management and disease control measures against SARS

Birth Control, Yet this led to many religious and ethical issues, For example, the Christians and Catholics believe that it is a sin to disrupt the natural cycle of life and death. They view children as gifts from God. Hence, they are against birth control, Contraceptive pills: First legalized in sinapore in 1975, Symbolises and Reflected rising independence of women. Rising women empowerment, in which women can have a control over their biological function, Increase AIDs occurrences as casual sexual intercourse rates increase. Women need not worry about getting pregnant as chances are lowered with the help of the pills, Decrease abortion rates, Abortion: First legalised in Singapore in the 1970s, Cases of Abortion per year:12.6 per 1000 women, according to [UNDP abortion policies 2007], which is one of the lowest rates among different countries in the world

genetic engineering/ Stem cell research

Heredity illnesses can now be avoided

Couples who are unable to give birth are now able to do so with the aid of IVF, testtube babies etc.


Cure of Illnesses, to allow illnesses to be cure as fast as they are observed, leading to a higher rate of survival



New drug to cure Osteoporosis

Prevention of illnesses.Advanced technologies have allowed people to conduct monthly check-ups with great convenience and efficiency.

Cancer-screening, Pink ribbon project: to raise awareness about the importance of doing regular mammography(breast-cancer screening)

Many Couples conduct medical check-ups before their marriage to make sure that both partners are healthy and fit to be married, to prevent passing any illnesses to each other unknowingly.

Lead to a widening socio-economic disparity: Only the rich can access the advanced medical tech easily due to the high costs

In singapore, the lower income are allowed to pay for their medical bills through medisave, using part of their CPF. Medishield, a national insurance scheme also allows the poor to pay for special treatments like chemotherapy and long-term treatments like dialysis.

Lead to over-reliance on medical Technology, bringing about complacency

People become complancent about keeping a healthy diet, Over-dependence may lead to severe health breakdown if any medical technology poses an error

Yet the efficiency and convenience of check-ups may encourage people to do so

Why are medical tecnologies so important in Singapore?

Singapore aims to be a centre of technology-intensive, high value-added manufacturing activities such as chemical engineering and pharmaceuticals. Hence it is venturing into LifeSciences, which involves the study of genetic engineering (look above) and development of new medical treatments, BIOpolis, Agency for Science, Tech and Research (A*STAR)

Transport technologies

Examples of Transport technologies

Motor Vehicle Technology, The Automotive Industry, Substantial near-term improvements in the fuel economy of new light-duty vehicles can be achieved using available, cost-effective technologies., By 2015, new car fuel consumption can be reduced by up to 25% at low cost AKA: the average fuel use per kilometre is reduced, (+)In some cases these have NEGATIVE COSTS TO CONSUMERS because: the time–discounted vale of fuel savings > cost of the technologies., the full effect of these improvements would not be realised until 2020-2025, Long-term advances seen in: Application of information technologies New materials technology Engineering breakthroughs in relation to advanced engine technologies Comprehensive utilisation of small scale technologies, Alternative Fuels (alt to refined petroleum products), NATURAL GAS-BASED FUELS (Methanol and DiMethylEther(DME) from Natural Gas and Coal), DME can be used as a fuel for power generation turbines, diesel engines, or as an LPG replacement in households., Methanol production from natural gas is an established technology. However, the bulk of this methanol is used for chemicals., BIOFUELS, (+)Piston engines in conventional motor vehicles can be adjusted to run on biofuels which REDUCE nitrogen-oxide emissions., (-)effects of intensive biofuels production on ecosystems & the possible effects of developing genetically modified organisms., (-)Altough most alternative fuels contain less carbon per unit of energy than gasoline, they do not necessarily emit less greenhouse gases than gasoline when used to power a vehicle., (+) Short-term REDUCTIONS IN EMISSIONS can be gained through: • the use of turbo-injection diesel engines running on low sulphur fuel (reduced 25%); • the use of natural gas (LPG, CNG or LNG) as a fuel (reduced around 20% for CNG); • cellulosic alcohols (ethanol and methanol) and biodiesel promise larger reductions (reduced 50% or more); and • hydrogen, although the net reduction of emissions depends on how the hydrogen is obtained – on current technologies it has substantially higher emissions, but it could be considerably lower with new, advanced technologies., Engine Technologies, (+) an advanced two-stroke engine with new electronically controlled fuel-injection techniques is designed to both RAISE EFFICIENCY of the combustion process and REDUCE EMISSIONS of unburnt fuel., Hybrid Engines, Fuel Cells, Other Fuel-Saving Technologies

Factors driving the advancement in Transport technology

1. Traffic congestion - encouraging new technologies to be adopted in traffic management

2. Traffic safety - consideration of new technologies, particularly road design and automated vehicle control.

3. Availability & Price of crude oil - encouraging research and development on fuel economy, the use of alternative fuels, and the development of fuel cell-powered engines.

4. Air pollution - encouraging the development of technologies to reduce harmful emissions (esp in urban areas)

5. Global Warming - search for low-emission transportation, adoption of NEW REGULATORY POLICIES by governments in such areas as fuel standards and fuel economy standards for new motor vehicles., (+)Increasing the ENERGY EFFICIENCY of transportation equipment: significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions, (-)Increasing energy efficiency of the transportation system TAKES TIME, typically 15 years or more between efficiency gains in new equipment and comparable efficiency gains for the entire fleet of transportation vehicles.

Why are Transport technologies so important to Singapore?

The Ministry of Tranport sees that efficient and cost effective transportation enhances Singapore's economic competitiveness and quality of life. They also strive to make Singapore an international civil aviation and maritime center for the region.


The Internet and computer programs should not replace traditional methods of teaching; they should be used to accentuate the education process.

While the introduction of computers and the Internet to elementary school aged children is both beneficial, and necessary, it should be done in a controlled manner

Definitions/Question analysis

Important features of Singapore

Knowlegde-based economy, Efficient, effective and Creative, Become centre for technology advancement