Factors affecting language learning

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Factors affecting language learning by Mind Map: Factors affecting language learning

1. internal factors

1.1. age

1.1.1. children

1.1.1.1. learning characteristics

1.1.1.1.1. respond to meaning

1.1.1.1.2. what hear and see

1.1.1.1.3. difficulty in abstract concepts

1.1.1.1.4. individual attention

1.1.1.1.5. talking about themselves

1.1.1.1.6. easily bored

1.1.1.2. teaching suggestions

1.1.1.2.1. gestures, intonation and demonstrations

1.1.1.2.2. clear and direct speaking

1.1.1.2.3. through games

1.1.1.2.4. physical actions to produce

1.1.1.2.5. organize around themes

1.1.1.2.6. promote imagination and creativity

1.1.1.2.7. promote interaction and talk

1.1.1.2.8. reward

1.1.1.2.9. use different objects

1.1.1.2.10. change classroom setting

1.1.1.2.11. not formal grammar

1.1.2. adolescents

1.1.2.1. learning characteristics

1.1.2.1.1. greater abstract thoughts

1.1.2.1.2. hard to please

1.1.2.1.3. committed when engaged

1.1.2.1.4. vulnerable to negative judgements

1.1.2.1.5. increasing life experience

1.1.2.1.6. at 15 develop cognitive skills

1.1.2.2. teaching suggestions

1.1.2.2.1. structured lessons

1.1.2.2.2. expose different cultures

1.1.2.2.3. something different to learn

1.1.2.2.4. reward

1.1.2.2.5. interested in students' lives

1.1.2.2.6. be positive model

1.1.2.2.7. praise them

1.1.3. adults

1.1.3.1. learning characteristics

1.1.3.1.1. concentrate for longer

1.1.3.1.2. more disciplined

1.1.3.1.3. more abstract ways

1.1.3.1.4. criticize teaching methods

1.1.3.1.5. anxiety because of failure

1.1.3.1.6. not willing to make mistakes or take risks

1.1.3.1.7. mature cognitive skills

1.1.3.2. teaching suggestions

1.1.3.2.1. use real-life and own experiences

1.1.3.2.2. use English practically

1.1.3.2.3. aware on how they want to learn

1.1.3.2.4. ask to know needs

1.1.3.2.5. focus on fluency

1.1.3.2.6. offer achievable activities

1.2. gender

1.2.1. males

1.2.1.1. less positive attitude

1.2.1.2. low-achieving students drop L2

1.2.2. females

1.2.2.1. more positive attitude

1.2.2.2. low-achieving students do not drop L2

1.2.2.3. motivators to male students

1.3. aptitude

1.3.1. talent different from intelligence

1.3.2. high relation with language learning

1.4. motivation/attitude

1.4.1. thoughts/feelings to continue

1.4.2. strong relation with language learning achievement

1.4.3. towards the new language and culture

1.4.4. influenced by learning environment

1.5. personality

1.5.1. self-esteem

1.5.1.1. definition

1.5.1.1.1. self-worth

1.5.1.1.2. self-assessment

1.5.1.1.3. specific self-esteem

1.5.1.1.4. task self-esteem

1.5.2. extroversion-introversion

1.5.2.1. definition

1.5.2.1.1. extroverts

1.5.2.1.2. introverts

1.5.2.2. connection with SLA success

1.5.2.2.1. strong basic interpersonal skills

1.5.2.2.2. weak reading and grammar skills

1.5.3. risk-taking

1.5.3.1. definition

1.5.3.1.1. willingness to take risks

1.5.3.2. connection with SLA success

1.5.3.2.1. weak in moderate risk taking for testing hypothesis

1.5.4. empathy

1.5.4.1. definition

1.5.4.1.1. ability to put oneself in another's place

1.5.5. inhibition

1.5.5.1. definition

1.5.5.1.1. extent to build defenses to protect ego

1.5.6. tolerance of ambiguity

1.5.6.1. definiton

1.5.6.1.1. dealing with stimuli ambiguity

1.5.6.2. connection with SLA success

1.5.6.2.1. weak listening and comprehension skills

1.6. learning style

1.6.1. affective filter

1.6.1.1. attitude

1.6.1.2. anxiety

1.6.1.3. competitiveness

1.6.1.4. other emotional responses

1.6.2. cognitive learning style

1.6.2.1. active

1.6.2.1.1. field independent active

1.6.2.1.2. field dependent active

1.6.2.2. passive

1.6.2.2.1. field independent passive

1.6.2.2.2. field dependent passive

1.6.3. visual learner

1.6.3.1. learning suggestions

1.6.3.1.1. draw or outline information

1.6.3.1.2. copy from board

1.6.3.1.3. diagram sentences

1.6.3.1.4. take notes and make lists

1.6.3.1.5. color code, highlight, circle, underline

1.6.3.1.6. use flashcards

1.6.4. kinesthetic learner

1.6.4.1. learning suggestions

1.6.4.1.1. use word association

1.6.4.1.2. record, watch

1.6.4.1.3. repeat with eyes closed

1.6.4.1.4. participate in group discussions

1.6.4.1.5. record notes after writing

1.6.5. auditory learner

1.6.5.1. learning suggestions

1.6.5.1.1. study in short blocks

1.6.5.1.2. task lab classes

1.6.5.1.3. field trips

1.6.5.1.4. study with others

1.6.5.1.5. use memory games and flashcards

1.7. learning strategy

1.7.1. definition

1.7.1.1. specific actions, steps behaviors, techniques to enhance learning

1.7.2. classification

1.7.2.1. cognitive

1.7.2.1.1. enable to manipulate language

1.7.2.2. metacognitive

1.7.2.2.1. manage process overall

1.7.2.3. memory-related

1.7.2.3.1. enable to retrieve information

1.7.2.4. compensatory

1.7.2.4.1. used for speaking and writing

1.7.2.5. affective

1.7.2.5.1. identifies mood and anxiety level

1.7.2.6. social

1.7.2.6.1. work with others and understand culture

1.8. theories for individual variations

1.8.1. neurolinguistic programming

1.8.1.1. sensory channel

1.8.1.2. sensory filter

1.8.1.3. sensory map

1.8.2. multiple intelligences

1.8.2.1. linguistical

1.8.2.2. interpersonal

1.8.2.3. intrapersonal

1.8.2.4. spatial

1.8.2.5. bodily-kinesthetic

1.8.2.6. musical

1.8.2.7. logical-mathematical

1.9. hemisphere specialization

1.9.1. left hemisphere

1.9.1.1. speech

1.9.1.2. writing

1.9.1.3. temporal order judgements

1.9.1.4. language

1.9.1.5. associative thoughts

1.9.1.6. reading

1.9.1.7. calculation

1.9.1.8. analysis processing

1.9.1.9. right visual field

1.9.1.10. writing right handed

1.9.2. right hemisphere

1.9.2.1. holistic processing

1.9.2.2. stereognosis

1.9.2.3. nonverbal environmental sounds

1.9.2.4. visuospatial skills

1.9.2.5. nonverbal ideation

1.9.2.6. recognition and memory of melodies

1.9.2.7. left visual field

1.9.2.8. writing left handed

2. external factors

2.1. acquisiton

2.1.1. subconscious

2.1.1.1. Krashen

2.1.1.1.1. comprehensible input

2.2. learning

2.2.1. conscious