Factors affecting language learning

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Factors affecting language learning by Mind Map: Factors affecting language learning

1. internal factors

1.1. age

1.1.1. children learning characteristics respond to meaning what hear and see difficulty in abstract concepts individual attention talking about themselves easily bored teaching suggestions gestures, intonation and demonstrations clear and direct speaking through games physical actions to produce organize around themes promote imagination and creativity promote interaction and talk reward use different objects change classroom setting not formal grammar

1.1.2. adolescents learning characteristics greater abstract thoughts hard to please committed when engaged vulnerable to negative judgements increasing life experience at 15 develop cognitive skills teaching suggestions structured lessons expose different cultures something different to learn reward interested in students' lives be positive model praise them

1.1.3. adults learning characteristics concentrate for longer more disciplined more abstract ways criticize teaching methods anxiety because of failure not willing to make mistakes or take risks mature cognitive skills teaching suggestions use real-life and own experiences use English practically aware on how they want to learn ask to know needs focus on fluency offer achievable activities

1.2. gender

1.2.1. males less positive attitude low-achieving students drop L2

1.2.2. females more positive attitude low-achieving students do not drop L2 motivators to male students

1.3. aptitude

1.3.1. talent different from intelligence

1.3.2. high relation with language learning

1.4. motivation/attitude

1.4.1. thoughts/feelings to continue

1.4.2. strong relation with language learning achievement

1.4.3. towards the new language and culture

1.4.4. influenced by learning environment

1.5. personality

1.5.1. self-esteem definition self-worth self-assessment specific self-esteem task self-esteem

1.5.2. extroversion-introversion definition extroverts introverts connection with SLA success strong basic interpersonal skills weak reading and grammar skills

1.5.3. risk-taking definition willingness to take risks connection with SLA success weak in moderate risk taking for testing hypothesis

1.5.4. empathy definition ability to put oneself in another's place

1.5.5. inhibition definition extent to build defenses to protect ego

1.5.6. tolerance of ambiguity definiton dealing with stimuli ambiguity connection with SLA success weak listening and comprehension skills

1.6. learning style

1.6.1. affective filter attitude anxiety competitiveness other emotional responses

1.6.2. cognitive learning style active field independent active field dependent active passive field independent passive field dependent passive

1.6.3. visual learner learning suggestions draw or outline information copy from board diagram sentences take notes and make lists color code, highlight, circle, underline use flashcards

1.6.4. kinesthetic learner learning suggestions use word association record, watch repeat with eyes closed participate in group discussions record notes after writing

1.6.5. auditory learner learning suggestions study in short blocks task lab classes field trips study with others use memory games and flashcards

1.7. learning strategy

1.7.1. definition specific actions, steps behaviors, techniques to enhance learning

1.7.2. classification cognitive enable to manipulate language metacognitive manage process overall memory-related enable to retrieve information compensatory used for speaking and writing affective identifies mood and anxiety level social work with others and understand culture

1.8. theories for individual variations

1.8.1. neurolinguistic programming sensory channel sensory filter sensory map

1.8.2. multiple intelligences linguistical interpersonal intrapersonal spatial bodily-kinesthetic musical logical-mathematical

1.9. hemisphere specialization

1.9.1. left hemisphere speech writing temporal order judgements language associative thoughts reading calculation analysis processing right visual field writing right handed

1.9.2. right hemisphere holistic processing stereognosis nonverbal environmental sounds visuospatial skills nonverbal ideation recognition and memory of melodies left visual field writing left handed

2. external factors

2.1. acquisiton

2.1.1. subconscious Krashen comprehensible input

2.2. learning

2.2.1. conscious