14 Categories of Disability

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14 Categories of Disability by Mind Map: 14 Categories of Disability

1. Deaf-Blindness

1.1. means concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments,

1.2. modfications: small group or indivisual instructions.

1.3. assistive: tele touch, deaf blind communicator

1.4. https://www.google.co.in/search?q=assistive+technology+devices+for+deaf+blindness&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=GqEJVaLWO8yOuATf-4GQAQ&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1024&bih=474#imgdii=_

1.5. Supporting Staff

2. Emotional Disturbance

2.1. …means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.

2.2. mordification: a quite place in the class room,more love and affection form friends and teachers.

2.2.1. assistive: i pod, dance, music and laughter.

3. Intellectual Disability…

3.1. means significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

3.2. mordification: IQ based on learning battery

3.3. assistive:talking books, e books, i pad

3.3.1. Included

3.3.2. Included

3.3.3. Excluded

4. . Deafness…

4.1. means a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

4.1.1. Project specifications

4.1.2. End User requirements

4.1.3. Action points sign-off

4.2. modification:Organizing Your Classroom and Materials"; (2) "Choosing Rules and Procedures"; (3) "Managing Student Work"; (4) "Getting Off to a Good Start"; (5) "Planning and Conducting Instruction"; (6) "Maintaining Appropriate Student Behavior"; (7) "Communication Skills for Teaching"; (8) "Managing Problem Behaviors"; (9) "Managing Special Groups."

4.2.1. case study:Background My name is Roberto and I am a premedical student majoring in biology. I have a severe-to-profound bilateral hearing loss and use hearing aids and speech reading (watching the movement of a person's lips) to maximize my communication skills. I have some knowledge of American Sign Language but not enough to effectively use a sign language interpreter as an accommodation. Access Issues My biology courses, as well as many other courses in science and mathematics, involve intensive lectures; some have interactive discussion sessions, and all of them make extensive use of advanced technical terms. Many of these terms are difficult to hear with hearing aids or to lip-read. I tried to use an FM amplification system (which through a microphone and transmitter worn by the instructor sends his or her words directly to my hearing aid) in these classes, but it was not helpful because of the nature of my hearing loss. If I miss information because of my hearing impairment, then I can't follow the lecture or adequately participate in discussion and ask questions. Note taking provides limited assistance since the notes are not verbatim, I can only review them after the class session, and sometimes the notes are available only one or two days after the class session. Note-taking assistance and front-row seating are adequate for me in nonscience and nonmathematics courses. Because the pace of instruction in science and mathematics is fast and the volume of material covered in each session is large, it is important that I have an adequate means to access the course lecture and discussion as it happens.

4.3. assistive: Assistive listening devices (ALDs),Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices,Alerting devices connect to a doorbell, telephone, or alarm that emits a loud sound or blinking light to let someone with hearing loss know that an event is taking place.

5. Developmental Delay

5.1. for children from birth to age three and children from ages three through nine IDEA the term developmental delay, as defined by each State, means a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development.

5.2. modications:intervention development evaluations

5.3. assistive: voice output box

5.4. Delays

6. Multiple Disabilities

6.1. means concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness.

6.1.1. Materials

6.1.2. Personel

6.1.3. Services

6.1.4. Duration

6.2. mordifications: simplify content of text books

6.3. assitive: smart boards.

7. Orthopedic Impairment…

7.1. means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

7.1.1. Dependencies

7.1.2. Milestones

7.2. mordifications:

7.2.1. the school should make provision for wheel chair to be used.

7.3. assistive: braces, artificial limp.

7.3.1. case study: Summary Age: 8 Gender: Male School Placement History: Regular education Education Classification: Orthopedic impaired Type of Technology: Reading and writing enhancement Intervention Referral Alex was seen on an on-going basis to enhance his literacy skills.� He is a non-verbal child with a diagnosis of athetoid cerebral palsy.� He currently uses a Vanguard by Prentke Romich Company for communication and has previously used a DynaMyte by DynaVox Systems.� Alex attended first grade.� He was having difficulty with reading and writing and his teacher requested additional literacy intervention. �� � Previous Intervention Alex had not had any additional intervention for reading and writing.� Previous interventions had focused on verbal communication.� � Assessment Summary � Literacy Needs: Writing Needs Checklist A modified version of the Basic Reading Inventory by Jeri Johns was administered to assess Alex�s current level of functioning.� The results indicated that Alex�s reading skills were slightly below grade level. � Summary of Technology Assessment� Alex is able to access the computer without the use of assistive technology.� He can use a regular keyboard with Keyboard Labels by DonJohnston, Inc. to assist with visual scanning.� He is beginning to use Co:Writer by Don Johnston, Inc. to increase typing speed.� He has not used this program very much because the length of text he was expected to produce was not great.� He is able to use this program well, but needs more practice before it will actually help to increase his typing speed.� For cognitive access to reading and writing Alex has been introduced to Writing With Symbols 2000 by Mayer-Johnson, Intellitalk 2 by Intellitools and Balanced Literacy by Don Johnston, Inc.� Discussion of how these programs were utilized is in the summary of intervention section of this report. � Summary of Intervention Alex was seen on a weekly basis during his summer vacation for literacy intervention.� Positioning and access were not targeted at this time.� Positioning for computer access during these sessions was not always ideal because equipment was not set-up specifically for Alex�s use.� Some of the activities that were included in Alex�s sessions are listed below. � Rewriting Comic Strips� Alex was presented with a comic strip that had the text deleted.� He and the therapist discussed the pictures and the story line.� For �pre-writing� and organizational purposes Alex used his Vanguard communication device to tell the therapist what was happening in the pictures.� The therapist helped Alex to shape his text into individual passages that related to each picture.� Once a cohesive story line was achieved Alex went to the computer and typed the text.� He was able to decide whether or not he wanted to utilize word prediction.� A talking word processor was used so that Alex had letter by letter and word by word feedback.� This allowed him to do less visual monitoring and helped to increase his typing speed.� This activity worked well as training for use of word prediction because of the pre-writing element.� Many times when asked to produce text Alex would depend on the word prediction to compose his text.� Because he had established what text would be present it was obvious when he let word prediction guide his writing.� � Sequencing cards and writing text� Sequencing is a weakness for Alex so it was incorporated into therapy as it is a critical skill for writing.� Language therapy sequencing cards (3-5) were given to Alex.� He was required to put them in order and write 1-3 sentences describing what was happening.� After sequencing the cards, Alex was not given feedback on whether or not the order was correct.� He used his communication device to �pre-write� text.� At that point he was able to determine whether or not his sequencing was correct.� Once the pictures were in order and Alex had decided on text he was required to type the text using a talking word processor.� The pictures were photocopied and text was printed under them to create a story. � Use of Balanced Literacy Program from Intellitools, Inc.� Balanced Literacy is a nine-unit program that provides literacy instruction at the first grade skill level.� Alex is able to access all of the units with the mouse and can work through them independently.� This has worked well to teach Alex to make an educated guess when he is unsure of the answer instead of relying on his paraprofessional, family or teacher to interpret and help him formulate an answer.� Many children with multiple disabilities have difficulty completing tasks independently and this program has been a good way to foster some academic independence. � Making Words� The Making Words strategy as outlined by Patricia Cunningham and Dorothy Hall was used to help Alex establish sound-symbol relationships.� Alex was given note cards with individual letters written on them.� He was then required to arrange them to create specified words.� � Independent Reading with Symbols and Words� Alex was given stories to take home and read that had been re-written using Writing with Symbols 2000.� This program provides the orthographic representation of a word along with a picture symbol.� At the next session Alex was asked to tell the therapist what happened in the book.� This was done to help foster independent reading skills and to allow Alex to �read� material that was age-appropriate even if it was beyond his skill level.� � Outcome Updates Summer 2001� Alex is receiving supplemental literacy instruction over the summer.� He is continuing to use the same strategies and activities to reinforce literacy concepts.� He recently had an Occupational Therapy evaluation that found deficits in visual tracking and other visual perceptual skills.� Based on these results Alex is going to utilize the highlighting feature on a talking word processor to do more of his independent reading at school.� The speaker volume will be turned down so that Alex does not get the auditory feedback, but still gets the visual tracking assistance.� Other strategies may also be integrated into Alex�s school curriculum.� Alex�s literacy skills remain slightly below grade level.�

8. autism

8.1. means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction,

8.2. modifications :The teacher can break assignments into smaller parts, llow student to move around when needed. Provide visual or verbal cues,Provide social skills support and instruction, role-playing situations to help increase social skills. Have the teacher incorporate visual components to lessons to help facilitate learning.

8.2.1. asisstive technology:picture communication board

8.2.2. case study:Sam is a 16-year-old young man with ASD and significant cognitive delays. As part of professional development training for his educational team, this speech-language pathology consultant followed him for 12 months. Sam now attends a public school special day class that offers frequent instruction in varied settings to foster independence in the community. History Birth and Development Sam was born six weeks premature following his mother's hospitalization for pre-term labor. His birth history was significant for low birth weight (2 lbs., 10 oz), respiratory distress, intraventricular hemorrhage, and a neonatal hospital stay of six weeks. He began receiving intervention services at 12 months of age to address speech, language, social-emotional, and cognitive delays. To date, evaluations yield developmental age equivalents up to the 24-month level. Since birth, Sam's history is unremarkable for significant medical concerns and he is in good health. He has passed hearing screenings and wears corrective glasses. Communication Profile at Baseline At 14 years, 8 months of age, Sam spontaneously shared his intentions through nonverbal means, which included facial expressions (e.g., looking toward staff to request a snack), physical gestures (e.g., pulling his teacher's hands to his head to request a head massage), and more conventional gestures (e.g., pointing to request and a head shake to reject). He also used unconventional nonverbal signals that included biting his hand to share positive and negative emotions and pinching to protest. Sam occasionally used a few verbal word approximations (e.g., "no," "yes," "more," and "balloon"), the sign for "help," and picture symbols on a voice output device. However, he typically used these symbols passively, most often in response to a direct verbal prompt from his social partner (e.g., "Do you want more?"). Assessment At baseline, the SAP was administered to gather information about functional abilities in daily activities through observation and a comprehensive caregiver questionnaire. Given his baseline presentation, the SAP placed him at the Social Partner Stage, a stage that is relevant for individuals using pre-symbolic communication. With this profile, functional educational goals based upon parent priorities and evidence-based supports were determined. Research The SAP was derived from longitudinal descriptive group research. It enables providers to select educational objectives that are predictive of gains in language acquisition and social adaptive functioning (Prizant et al., 2005). Sam's educational team selected objectives shown to predict an individual's symbolic growth, such as increasing his rate of spontaneous communication and his range of communicative functions. The team worked to move him beyond requesting objects to requesting specific people and actions. The SAP also facilitated the selection of evidence-based supports such as AAC when developing educational accommodations to address these objectives. Intervention Sam's Individualized Education Program objectives shifted from those for passive responses (e.g., responding to questions such as "Where did you go?") to initiating communication using AAC (e.g., requesting help or other actions, expressing emotions, and making choices of coping strategies). Throughout the day, Sam accessed an emotion necklace of laminated cards. On the front of each card was a graphic symbol representing an emotional state (e.g., happy, angry, and sad). On the back were symbols representing words Sam could use to request actions from others (e.g., "high five" for happy). This support fostered symbolic requests for communicative functions that Sam already exhibited spontaneously using nonverbal means at baseline (e.g., expressing emotion by biting his hand and looking toward staff). During language art centers, Sam engaged in activities designed to elicit more sophisticated requests for preferred actions. Rather than identifying pictures, he could choose a preferred sensory activity, such as a head massage, a back rub, or tickling. Color-coded symbols paired with sentence templates allowed Sam to create his own sentences for functions already exhibited spontaneously using nonverbal means at baseline (e.g., requesting comfort by pulling his teacher's hands toward his head). Outcomes Sam's first quarterly review occurred around his 15th birthday. Observations and videos revealed a higher rate of spontaneous bids for communication and the emergence of symbols to express emotion (e.g., "happy" and "mad"), request coping strategies (e.g., "head squeezes" and "high fives"), and form simple sentence structures (e.g., "Jim squeeze head" and "Karen rub back"). By six months post-intervention, Sam began to take turns, requesting interaction using subject + verb sentences and then responding to interaction. His teacher might request that "Sam rub back" and Sam would oblige. At 12 months post-intervention, Sam continues to expand his symbolic language skills and recently began to generalize his sentences to include names of his peers.

9. Hearing Impairment

9.1. means significantly sub average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

9.1.1. mordification: lip reading, sitting in front row, kenstecti approcah by teachers

9.1.2. assistive technology: hearing aid, visual pictures

10. Specific Learning Disability

10.1. means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of intellectual disability; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. these type of children are dyslexia, dysgraphia

10.1.1. mordification: large print text

10.2. assistive technology: reading pen

11. Speech or Language Impairmen

11.1. means a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

11.1.1. mordification: giving more time for the child to learn, reduce distractions

11.1.1.1. assistive technology: AAC AUGMENTATIVE & ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION

12. Traumatic Brain Injury…

12.1. means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.

12.2. mordifications: functional behavioral assessment

12.2.1. assistive technology: adapted pencil grip.

13. Other Health Impairment

13.1. means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that— (a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and (b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

13.2. examples: ADHD, asthma

13.3. mordifications:planning safety of the child in school.

13.3.1. assistive technology: automatic time medicine dispenser.