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Epistemology by Mind Map: Epistemology

1. Skepticism

1.1. Greek for "to inquire"

1.2. Uncertain

1.3. St. Agustine

1.3.1. Free will .

1.3.2. Humans are morally responsible for their actions

1.3.3. "Restrict your ascent to mere fact of your

1.3.4. Subjective view of time

1.3.5. Original sin .

1.3.6. Doctrines of predestination

1.3.7. Efficacious grace

1.4. Not denial

1.5. Modes

1.5.1. Subjective perceiver

1.5.2. Objective world

1.5.3. Relationship between perceiver and world

1.6. Relativism

1.6.1. No universal truths Culture .

1.7. Cicero

1.7.1. Academic skepticism Distinguish cognitive from non cognitive

1.7.2. Natural law

1.7.3. Natural rights

1.7.4. “Socrates was the first to call philosophy down from heaven and set her in cities and even to bring her into households and compel her to inquire about human life and customs as well as matters good and evil.”

1.7.5. Cicero's Republic

2. Empiricism

2.1. Sense experience

2.2. John Locke

2.2.1. Tabula Rasa Blank slate .

2.2.2. Simple sensations Visual Colour Shape Size First impressions

2.2.3. Complex Ideas Physical Texture Weight After experience

2.2.4. Primary qualities Produced by senses objectively Weight Extention

2.2.5. Secondary qualities Effect of outer realities on the senses Sweet/sour Hot/cold

2.3. Perception

2.4. Contingent truths

2.5. David Hume

2.5.1. Unalterable ego Buddha

2.5.2. Copy principle Ideas are products of impressions

2.5.3. Perceptions Impressions Sense of external reality Ideas Reflective memory

2.5.4. Causal inference

2.5.5. Riddle of induction 3 Claims Arguments concerning existence are founded on the relationship of cause and effect Knowledge from that relationship is from experience Our experimental conclusions proceed on the idea that the future will be like the past

2.5.6. Knowledge of Relations of ideas Matters of fact

2.5.7. Custom is not reason

2.6. Sensation

2.7. Francis Bacon

2.7.1. Inductive approach

2.7.2. Nature Utilize nature for human advantage Improve quality of life

2.7.3. Science Science is the future for humanity

2.7.4. The Advancement of Learning

2.7.5. "Knowledge is power"

2.8. ~

2.9. Posteriori

3. Rationalism

3.1. Reason

3.2. René Descartes

3.2.1. Medetations First truth He exists "Cogito Ergo Sum" 3 Doubts Dreams Senses Deceitful God

3.2.2. Dualism Material realm Physical bodies Tables Chairs Brains Immaterial realm God Demons Souls Minds Mind and body

3.2.3. Modes 3 Types Ideas invented by me Adventitious Innate

3.2.4. Cartesian circle Mistake in reasoning

3.2.5. Principle of causation There must be at least as much reality in the cause as there is in the effect of the cause

3.3. Reflection

3.4. Innate knowledge

3.5. Plato

3.5.1. State of flux Always changing

3.5.2. Knowledge collected ex-temporal

3.5.3. The Republic Allegory of the cave

3.6. Apriori

3.7. Absolute truth

3.8. Baruch Spinoza

3.8.1. Sufficient reason

3.8.2. "No substance external to god"

3.8.3. God Absolutely infinite . Infinite attributes

3.8.4. Substance

3.9. Justification of beliefs