## 1. Outline

### 1.1. Linear Motion

1.1.1. The concept of linear motion can be well seen in the cop and perp activity. Bot h the cop and the perp are traveling in a straight line, thus linear motion.

1.1.2. another example of linear motion would be if the catapult launched like a ballista, which applies more force to launch an object straight ahead while pointed upwards at a 45 degree angle.

1.1.3. Kinematics, the study of only motion, has a subset of study known as linear kinematics, which is the description of the motion in space of a point along a trajectory.

1.1.3.1. the trajectory can be rectilinear(straight),

1.1.3.2. or curvilinear, which means it's on a curve.

1.1.4. acceleration is a topic of interest when talking about the catapult. The catapult, in order to accelerate the projectile, must store a lot of potential energy in order to shoot it far and powerfully. Also, kinetic energy is spent as the projectile loses momentum and its velocity is slowed when the drag of gravity eventually pulls the projectile downward.

1.1.4.1. New node

1.1.5. Position is the location of the object in space-time. It has to be relative to something, usually an origin on a plane, when translated from reality to the drawing board.

1.1.6. Displacement is the distance the object has gone from its original start point. It can help to describe velocity and direction, and in turn, these two values help to describe displacement.

### 1.2. Non-linear Motion

1.2.1. An example of non-linear motion would be the usual method of catapulting, in which objects are flung in an arc, resulting in a non-linear motion.

1.2.2. another example of non-linear motion would be the logger pro example tutorial in which the basketball player throws a ball towards the hoop, which also results in an arc movement.

### 1.3. Forces and Momentum

1.3.1. the neat video in which i posted the topic of stopping bullets with phone book armor is a good example of force; the force of the bullet is severely slowed by the metal of the car and then furthermore by the phone book under the armor.

1.3.2. also, the metal of the car is a great deterrant to the bullet, and slows the bullet's momentum by a lot. on the other hand, if the bulllet were to hit the books first, the momentum would not be reduced as drastically as by the metal and thus would pierce the car moreso.

1.3.3. the mallow traveling through the air accepts force of gravity pulling on it and also exerts force on the earth by pulling on it simultaneously.

1.3.4. the mallow also has momentum due to the sheer force at which it is shot out of the catapult.

1.3.5. nweton's law of action reaction states that if a force is applied to an object, then the object applies the same force back.

1.3.5.1. newton's laws also reference momentum through the other two laws; an object at rest will stay at rest because there is no momentum; no velocity to multiply to the mass.

1.3.5.1.1. force equals mass times acceleration, while momentum equals mass times velocity, which is speed and direction.

1.3.6. the forces described in hooke's law are thus: there is a force exerting on the object that is elastic, constant F, and there is another force pulling the object in the opposite direction, which is the spring constant, or k.

1.3.7. The range equation describes, formally, the capability of a plane to fly a certain range. Factoring in gear, oil, crew, etc, and traveling at so-and-so velocity, will the plane will reach location x. In our interpretation, the formula describes the range of the flying mallow, which leads to descriptions of the force and amount of force involved in propulsion, and at the mass that the object is, at what velocity will it fly at for how long, and thusly, what is the momentum of the object in any point in time during its flight.

### 1.4. Work, Energy Storage and Transfer

1.4.1. the mallow is a good example of energy storage; the force that is created by puling back on the catapult is translated and stored in the mallow as it is moving through the air.

1.4.2. also, energy storage occurs in the catapult, where the arm of catapult stores the energy created from the human arm as it pulls back the catapult mechanism. all that stored energy is released when the catapult is fired.

1.4.3. Hooke's Law describes the storing of potential energy and using kinetic energy of the force holding the spring back and the load of the object being launched to launch the object essentially. The law refers explicitly to the elasticity of objects when a lot of mass and force is applied to the object.

1.4.3.1. the law is also very concerned with a spring constant, which measures how much elasticity an object has before losing its shape. Spring constant is commonly the variable K.

1.4.3.2. Another variable of the hooke's law formula is the x, or displacement of the object in question. Essentially the length it stretches to before the breaking point.

1.4.3.3. The final variable in the equation is F, which is the force exerted on the object.

1.4.4. potential energy is energy stored in an object, like a loaded spring. the energy is there, but is not being released.

1.4.5. kinetic energy is the energy released by the object after storing potential energy.

1.4.6. energy transfers by stages. during the launch of the mallow, we have potential energy transferring to the rubber band and then the mallow in flight as kinetic energy. As the kinetic energy winds down, gravitational energy takes over and drags the mallow down. Finally the bounce of the mallow dissipates the energy of the mallow in flight through the ground. All energy is transferred from object to object, surface to surface, state to state.

### 1.5. Properties of Matter

1.5.1. matter cannot be destroyed or created

1.5.2. elasticity is the property that allows matter to store great amounts of energy.

## 2. Competencies

### 2.1. Effectively communicate qualitative and quantitative information orally and in writing.

2.1.1. a good demo of capturing qualitative info would be the motion diagrams. they do not use any sort of detailed calculation, but rather are used to describe the event of motion.

2.1.2. quantitative info of the motion diagram is translated into the p vs t and v vs t diagrams where the velocity and change in velocity is graphed on xy axes.

2.1.3. logger pro is a tool that is used to further aid in describing the quantitative data that exists when trying to calculate motion and displacement and velocity.

2.1.4. using the motion and force diagrams, we have learned to qualitatively evaluate motion through verbal and written description.

2.1.5. communicated to classmates describing position vs displacement, making distinctions between speed versus velocity, and discussing the implications of the reality of physics.

### 2.2. Explain the application of fundamental physical principles to various physical phenomena.

2.2.1. the catapult experiment taught a lot about the laws of acceleration, when the mallow was either accelerating via force from launch or when gravity's force began to take over on the way down.

2.2.1.1. also, mallow's flight introduced actualization of the principle of inertia, when various factors affected the mallow's velocity.

2.2.2. all the neat videos taught us about the actualization of real physics principles in real life scenarios.

### 2.3. Apply appropriate problem-solving techniques to practical and meaningful problems using graphical, mathematical, and written modeling tools.

2.3.1. using logger pro to calculate the motion of various objects, basketball and mallow.

2.3.2. excel is a good tool to collect all the data in numerical form to perform calculations later on.

2.3.3. vpython is a good simulator to real life physics, something we can use to lay out an experiment without having to use real life resources.

2.3.3.1. modeling out the motion of scenarios is also much easier in python than it is in real life, because in python, things will only go one way; the way you programmed it to go.

2.3.4. Applying hooke's law to rubber bands to determine how much force the rubber band would take, then increasing the spring constant of the band by adding on more bands to support it.

### 2.4. Work effectively in collaborative groups.

2.4.1. effectively communicated with a group to pass along data collected in mallow launcher experiment, and to progress collectively as a group while working individually.

2.4.2. we all divided up work evenly and set scheduled dates on when we were all going to turn in stuff to the same site, and one person had the responsibility to upload everything.

2.4.3. don't be the group leader if you don't want the responsibility of keeping track of everyone else as well.

2.4.4. For P2, our group did things a bit more differently, given time constraints and smaller scope of project. simply adding on to P1, we just did our parts individually on the glogs and googledoc, by formatting ourselves and doing the layouts individually.

2.4.5. email correspondence was better kept during P2