Cold War: Leaders - United States

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Cold War: Leaders - United States by Mind Map: Cold War: Leaders  - United States

1. Kennedy, Jan 1961 - Nov 1963 (assassinated) Containment - a flexible response and Domino effect

1.1. Practices

1.1.1. Continuation of Truman's actions

1.1.2. Eisenhower's policy of more reliance on military weaponry

1.1.3. Use of CIA

1.1.4. Negotiate with USSR

1.1.5. Alliance for Progress - aid for developing countries

1.1.6. Peace corps

1.2. Success

1.2.1. Containment in EU

1.2.2. Khrushchev at Vienna Summit

1.2.3. Cuban Missile Crisis

1.2.4. Nuclear supremacy

1.2.5. Hot line

1.2.6. Arms agreement with USSR

1.3. Failure

1.3.1. Economic aid in Latin America never achieved goals

1.3.2. Bay of Pigs humiliation

1.3.3. Increase aid to S.Vietnam

2. Johnson, Nov 1963 - Jan 1969 Containment and Domino effect

2.1. Practices

2.1.1. Continuation of Truman;s actions

2.1.2. Involvement in Vietnam by sending more troops

2.1.3. Anti-communist help in Latin America

2.2. Success

2.2.1. Containment in EU

2.3. Failure

2.3.1. Dominican Republic

2.3.2. Vietnam - all communist

3. Nixon, Jan 1969 - Aug 1974 "Peace with Honour" Vietnam, new relations with USSR and US, Nixon Doctrine

3.1. Practice

3.1.1. Withdrew from vietnam

3.1.2. Detente with USSR , trade agreements and summits

3.1.3. Detente with CHN through summit and tradenagreemeqnts

3.2. Success

3.2.1. Withdrawal of troops in Vietnam

3.2.2. USSR and CHN improved relations, especially with SALT I

3.3. Failure

3.3.1. Vietnam - no financial support and fell to communist in 1975

3.3.2. Cambodia invasion - Pol Pot's victory

3.3.3. SALT agreement - not comprehensive

4. Carter, Jan 1977 - Jan 1981 Continue Detente and arms control, Ethical Foreign policy, Carter Doctrine

4.1. Practice

4.1.1. Stopped exports to USSR , increase defence budget bc of Soviet invasion in Afghanistan

4.1.2. Linked arms control reduction

4.2. Success

4.2.1. Human Rights issues awareness raised

4.2.2. Camp David Agreement - Israel and Egypt peace

4.2.3. Panama Canal Treaty - Neutral territory but belonged to Panama

4.2.4. Helsinki Agreement

4.2.5. Recognise CHN as communist

4.3. Failures

4.3.1. Lacked clear approach to soviets

4.3.2. SALT II never ratified

4.3.3. Ongoing hesitance crisis in Iran

5. Reagan Jan 1981 - Jan 1989 Reasserting US Power, reduction of Nuclear weapons, Reagan Doctrine

5.1. Practice

5.1.1. Defence spending increased

5.1.2. New missiles - SDI/Starwars

5.1.3. CIA covert operations

5.1.4. Anti-communist support in Central USA

5.1.5. 1985 - arms reduction with USSR

5.2. Success

5.2.1. Star Wars = negotiate with USSr

5.2.2. INF Treaty to reduce USSR nuclear stocks

5.2.3. Meetings with Gorbachev to reduce CW hostility

5.3. Failures

5.3.1. Early 1980s = "evil empire" to USSR

5.3.2. Policy in Central America - only support right-winged government

6. Truman, Apr 1945 - Jan 1953 Containment

6.1. Practice

6.1.1. Truman Doctrine, 12 March 1947, a response to Greece, Turkey and communists

6.1.1.1. Radical change from isolation

6.1.1.2. Support free peoples

6.1.2. Marshall Plan

6.1.2.1. General George Marshall believed EU countries needed immediate help from US - economic extension of Truman's Doctrine

6.1.3. Resisting communists in South Korea, Indochina, and Taiwan

6.2. Success

6.2.1. Containment in EU by rebuilding their economies

6.2.2. Berli Blockade resisted

6.2.3. West DE is democratic and eco, stable

6.2.4. JPN is strong and anti-communist

6.2.5. Korea contained

6.3. Failures

6.3.1. Failed to understand complexity of Asian nationalism in Indochina

6.3.2. Increased military spending bc NSC-68

6.3.3. CHN is enemy

7. Eisenhower, Jan 1953 - Jan 1961 containment and Domino Effect

7.1. Practices

7.1.1. More negotiations i.e. Geneva Summit

7.1.2. More economic aid in Middle East

7.1.3. More reliance on nuclear weaponry

7.1.4. Continuing Truman's actions

7.2. Success

7.2.1. Lebanon and Jordan are allies

7.2.2. Containment of West Berlin and strengthen NATO

7.2.3. Control military spending

7.2.4. Korean War ended

7.2.5. Competent handling of Suez Crisis

7.2.6. Relations with USSR improved

7.3. Failures

7.3.1. U-2 flight

7.3.2. Indochina - support repressive Diem

7.3.3. Imperialism in Iran and Guatamala