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Genetic Engineering by Mind Map: Genetic
Engineering
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Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering requires three elements: the gene to be transferred, a host cell into which the gene is inserted, and a vector(An organism or chemical used to transport a gene into a new host cell) to bring about the transfer.

Genes

Genes carry instructions for the formation, functioning, and transmission of specific traits from one generation to another.

Segments of Deoxyribonucleic Acids (DNA)

DNA stores the information that determines an organism's hereditary or genetic properties.

Processes Involved

Transgenic Manipulation

transfer of single or multiple genes from one organism to a different species

Definition

Alteration of genetic code by artificial means

Genetic engineering is the deliberate, controlled manipulation of the genes in an organism with the intent of making that organism better in some way. This is usually done independently of the natural reproductive process. The result is a so-called genetically modified organism (GMO). To date, most of the effort in genetic engineering has been focused on agriculture.

Advantages

Hereditary diseases can be prevented

Genes can be manipulated to show desirable characteristics

A revolution in agriculture

i.e. Scientists are able to produce plants resistant to pests or even plants that can survive in extreme climates

More productive due to larger yield of crops

Food ripens faster and has a longer shelf-life

Aquaculture

Produce varieties of seafood in places that may have not been feasible before

Evolution

Study genes from the bones and teeth of long-extinct animals, providing new insights into the evolutionary process.

Disadvantages

Irreversible effects

Compromised the richness of natural biodiversity

Horizontal gene transfer( transfer of genes or genetic material directly from one individual to another by processes similar to infection)to insects, birds, and small mammals will cause many harmful effects including cancer, resulting in a loss of biodiversity.

Decreased nutritional value

Natural food chains disrupted

Genetically engineered species outcompeting wild species in an ecosystem.

Not scientifically proven that Genetically Engineered food are safe for consumption

Decrease in food diversity

When all the farmers standardize the type of crops they grow, there will be very little different type of foods.

Unexpected characteristics may appear in genetically altered organisms

Increased pollution of food and water supply

The creation of herbicide-resistant weeds

Controversy

Emphysema

a breathing disorder in approximately 100,000 people in the western world.

Death Case (Human)

An eighteen-year-old from Tucson, Arizona, died in an experiment at the University of Pennsylvania.

Animal Testing Gone Wrong

the very first commercially sold GM product was lab tested (Flavr Savr) animals used in such tests have prematurely died.

Allergies

Soy allergies jumped 50% in the U.K. just after GM soy was introduced.

Cloning

Formation of Proteins

1) Transcription

The message in the template must first be copied into a RNA molecule called messenger RNA (mRNA).

One of the strands in the gene is used as a template to make mRNA.

The message in the template has to be copied into a messenger RNA molecule (mRNA).

Three bases make up a codon.

A mRNA molecule contains Uracil(U) instead of Thymine (T). Hence, adenine(A) pairs with uracil(U) instead.

2) Translation

The mRNA carries the message to the cytoplasm where ribosomes and transfer RNA (tRNA) are present.

The first 2 tRNAs attach to the codons on the mRNA and a peptide bond is formed.

Once the peptide bond is formed, the ribosomes moves along one codon to the right of the mRNA and releases tRNAs.

Transferring the human insulin gene into bacteria

1) Obtain the human chromosome containing the insulin gene. Cut the gene using a restriction enzyme.

2) Obtain a plasmid from a bacterium and cut it with a restriction enzyme too.

3) Mix the plasmid with the DNa fragment containing the insulin gene. Add the enzyme DNA ligase.

4) Mix the plasmid with E.coli. bacteria. Apply temporary heat or electric shock to open up the pores of the bacteria to allow the plasmid to enter

Large-scale production of insulin using Fermenters

Fermenter

Fermenter is a giant steel cylindrical tank closed at both ends. It is designed to keep its inside environment favourable for the desired biological process to operate.

Cooling System

The fermenter has a cooling system where the heat produced during the growth of bacteria must be removed to maintain an optimum temperature for growth and enzyme activity in the bacteria. Water is pumped through the cooling jacket to remove heat from the culture broth.  Very large fermenters contain their cooling jacket inside it and shaped like a coil. A temperature probe measures the temperature of the broth.

Aeration System

The aeration system of the fermenters contains a sparger, an aeration device and a impeller, a stirring device. The sparger is a metal ring with tiny holes where sterile air passes into the fermenter under high pressure. Air enters as tiny bubbles to increase the surface area to volume ratio for oxygen to dissolve in the nutrient broth. The impeller mixes the air bubbles with the nutrient broth to ensure that oxygen and nutrients are evenly distributed and available for bacteria in all parts of the fermenter. Continuous stirring ensures that the growing bacteria do not clump together.

pH Controller

The pH controller ensures that it maintains its pH optimum for maximum growth of the microorganism. The pH of the broth is measured by the pH probe and the pH is adjusted using the acid/base reservoir.

Nutrients

The nutrient broth contains a carbon and energy source such as glucose, a nitrogen source such as amino acids and nitrates and also essential mineral salts.