14 Categories of Disabilities

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14 Categories of Disabilities by Mind Map: 14 Categories of Disabilities

1. Developmental Delay

1.1. Intervention

1.1.1. Prepare strategy sheets to learn a skill, that is captured in a checklist. Checklist includes key steps to master that skill (Extended Learning).

1.2. Modification

1.2.1. For cognitive delay, use student's preferences and interests to build lessons (Extended Learning).

1.3. Assistive Technology

1.3.1. When using a computer keyboard, place stickers on target keys when using computer programs.

2. Hearing Impairment

2.1. Intervention

2.1.1. Specialized seating arrangements and clearly enunciate speech.

2.2. Modification

2.2.1. Provide supplemental materials to reinforce concepts that are being taught.

2.3. Assistive Technology

2.3.1. Amplification device: enhance residual hearing (Aboud).

3. Multiple Disabilities

3.1. Intervention

3.1.1. Appropriate therapists work closely with classrooms. Include language development, social skill development, functional skill development and vocational skill development in the classroom (Paths to Literacy).

3.2. Modification

3.2.1. Modify books to meet the needs of students (Paths to Literacy). For example, enlarging text and simplifying context.

3.3. Assistive Technology

3.3.1. Talking Photo Albums: Conversation aid for individuals with limited verbal communication skills (Paths to Literacy).

4. Orthopedic Impairment

4.1. Intervention

4.1.1. Special seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements (ProjectIDEAL, 2013).

4.2. Modification

4.2.1. Adjustment to rules regarding absences due to disability (ProjectIDEAL, 2013).

4.3. Assistive Technology

4.3.1. Communication devices, like a communication board (ProjectIDEAL, 2013).

5. Other Health Impairment

5.1. Intervention

5.1.1. (Ex. ADHD) Teach specific techniques for organizing their thoughts and materials. Organize classroom accordingly, keep materials in permanent locations (ProjectIDEAL, 2013).

5.2. Modification

5.2.1. (Ex. ADHD) Simplify steps of more complex assignments to make them more manageable.

5.3. Assistive Technology

5.3.1. (Ex. ADHD) Noise cancelling earphones.

6. Specific Learning Disability

6.1. Intervention

6.1.1. Resource room that provides special services for specific academic subjects (HealthyChildren.Org, 2015).

6.2. Modification

6.2.1. Students get graded using a different standard than the other students (HealthyChildren.org, 2015).

6.3. Assistive Technology

6.3.1. Listen to audio recordings instead of reading text.

7. Speech/Language Impairment

7.1. Intervention

7.1.1. Core Vocabulary Therapy: Student is given a list of words and their production is tested twice weekly (Bowen, 2014).

7.2. Modification

7.2.1. Allow the student to substitute oral assignments with written assignments (Bowen, 2014).

7.3. Assistive Technology

7.3.1. Augmentative and Alternative Communication Device (AAC). Helps make it possible to overcome communication problems (Bowen, 2014).

8. Traumatic Brain Injury

8.1. Intervention

8.1.1. Give attention to the physical arrangement of the classroom to make mobility easier and accommodate physical needs.

8.2. Modification

8.2.1. Change in class schedules to a less demanding course load.

8.3. Assistive Technology

8.3.1. Screen readers that read aloud the words on the screen.

8.4. Case Study

8.4.1. http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Carl_Coelho2/publication/7489053_Behavioral_and_social_interventions_for_individuals_with_traumatic_brain_injury_a_summary_of_the_research_with_clinical_implications/links/00b7d53bed6ea2d8fe000000.pdf

9. Intellectual Disability

9.1. Intervention

9.1.1. Use different color chalks/pens for emphasis on different topics.

9.2. Modification

9.2.1. Change learning tasks to something with a similar topic by simplifying or condensing, or combing or grouping information (Students with Intellectual Disabilities).

9.3. Assistive Technology

9.3.1. Computer software to help facilitate improved spelling and literacy skills (Students with Intellectual Disabilities).

10. Emotional Disturbance

10.1. Intervention

10.1.1. Support student's inclusion. Environmental disturbance can make it hard for peers to build or maintain interpersonal relationships (Emotional Disturbance).

10.2. Modification

10.2.1. Break down assignments into smaller ones. As students complete each step, build in reinforcement for task completion (Emotional Disturbance).

10.3. Assistive Technology

10.3.1. The Talklight: Light flashes according to noise in the room. This can help students settle down or transition into another activity (Emotional Disturbance).

11. Visual Impairment

11.1. Intervention

11.1.1. Sit student near the blackboard in a central location, verbalizing as you write (American Foundation for the Blind).

11.2. Modification

11.2.1. Extended time completing assignments (American Foundation for the Blind).

11.3. Assistive Technology

11.3.1. Low vision devices that help students see objects near and objects at a distance (American Foundation for the Blind).

12. Deaf-blindness

12.1. Intervention

12.1.1. Provide specialized and highly individualized communication and educational support to student (Blaha).

12.2. Modification

12.2.1. Extra time to complete assignments.

12.3. Assistive Technology

12.3.1. BrailleNote: a note-taking device that can have notes outputted in braille, print, or speech (Blaha).

13. Autism

13.1. Intervention

13.1.1. Students taught social skills in one on one or in small group settings (Stokes).

13.2. Modification

13.2.1. Provide trained peer support or a buddy system to assist with social interaction and provide additional support as needed (Stokes).

13.3. Assistive Technology

13.3.1. Computer touch screens to allow students to navigate and interact with the computer (Wright, 2001).

13.4. Case Study

13.4.1. http://sgo.sagepub.com/content/spsgo/4/4/2158244014556640.full.pdf

14. Deafness

14.1. Intervention

14.1.1. Language Therapy

14.2. Modification

14.2.1. Visual learning opportunities to compensate for lack of auditory stimuli (Mader, 2012).

14.3. Assistive Technology

14.3.1. Alerting device: Provides information through vision or vibration (Heckendorf, 2009).

14.4. Case Study

14.4.1. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/106/3/e43.full.pdf+html