CATEGORIES OF DISABILITY UNDER THE IDEA

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CATEGORIES OF DISABILITY UNDER THE IDEA by Mind Map: CATEGORIES OF DISABILITY UNDER THE IDEA

1. MULTIPLE DISABILITIES

1.1. Means concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness.

1.1.1. Know the needs, play to the strengths. Each student with multiple disabilities will have his or her own set of skills, strengths, and learning needs. Learning more about each disability of the student will be helpful in addressing those learning needs. Also find out more about the student’s strengths and interests, enthusiasms, and preferences. These can be used to motivate the student and enrich the education he or she receives. Parents are a great source of this information. So is the student! Be familiar with the student’s IEP. If you have a student with multiple disabilities in your class, chances are that he or she has an individualized education program (IEP). The IEP will spell out the educational and functional goals to be worked on. You may have been part of the team that developed the IEP. If not, it’s important to be familiar with what the student’s IEP requires. Ask for a copy. Consult with administrators and other teachers, as needed, to make sure that the supports and services listed in the IEP are provided.

2. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

2.1. An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech.

2.1.1. Therefore, it is extremely important to plan carefully for the child’s return to school. Parents will want to find out ahead of time about special education services at the school. This information is usually available from the school’s principal or special education teacher. The school will need to evaluate the child thoroughly. This evaluation will let the school and parents know what the student’s educational needs are. The school and parents will then develop an Individualized Education Program (IEP) that addresses those educational needs.

3. DEAFNESS

3.1. A hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

3.1.1. Children who are hard of hearing will find it much more difficult than children who have normal hearing to learn vocabulary, grammar, word order, idiomatic expressions, and other aspects of verbal communication. For children who are deaf or have severe hearing losses, early, consistent, and conscious use of visible communication modes (such as sign language, fingerspelling, and Cued Speech) and/or amplification and aural/oral training can help reduce this language delay. By age four or five, most children who are deaf are enrolled in school on a full-day basis and do special work on communication and language development. Parents work with school personnel to develop an individualized education program (IEP) that details the child’s special needs and the services and supports that will be provided to meet those needs. IDEA requires that the IEP team address the communication needs of a child who is deaf or hard of hearing.

4. OTHER HEALTH IMPAIRMENTS

4.1. Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that adversely affects a child´s educational performance.

4.1.1. Determining what related services a child needs is the responsibility of the child’s IEP team, the group that develops the child’s individualized education program. Key information for decision makers will be available from the evaluation process, since a child must be assessed in all areas related to his or her suspected disability. The IEP team must look carefully at the evaluation results, which show the child’s areas of strength and need, and decide upon which related services are appropriate for the child. The school must then provide these services as part of the child’s education program.

5. HEARING IMPAIRMENT

5.1. An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of “deafness.”

5.1.1. Children who are hard of hearing will find it much more difficult than children who have normal hearing to learn vocabulary, grammar, word order, idiomatic expressions, and other aspects of verbal communication. For children who are deaf or have severe hearing losses, early, consistent, and conscious use of visible communication modes (such as sign language, fingerspelling, and Cued Speech) and/or amplification and aural/oral training can help reduce this language delay.

6. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

6.1. means significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

6.1.1. Given that intellectual disabilities affect learning, it’s often crucial to provide supports to students with ID in the classroom. This includes making accommodations appropriate to the needs of the student. It also includes providing what IDEA calls “supplementary aids and services.” Supplementary aids and services are supports that may include instruction, personnel, equipment, or other accommodations that enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate.Thus, for families and teachers alike, it’s important to know what changes and accommodations are helpful to students with intellectual disabilities. These need to be discussed by the IEP team and included in the IEP, if appropriate.

7. AUTISM

7.1. Means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

7.1.1. Build opportunities for the student to have social and collaborative interactions throughout the regular school day. Provide support, structure, and lots of feedback. If behavior is a significant issue for the student, seek help from expert professionals (including parents) to understand the meanings of the behaviors and to develop a unified, positive approach to resolving them. Have consistent routines and schedules. When you know a change in routine will occur prepare the student by telling him or her what is going to be different and what to expect or do. Work together with the student’s parents and other school personnel to create and implement an educational plan tailored to meet the student’s needs. Regularly share information about how the student is doing at school and at home.

8. EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE

8.1. A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.(b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.(c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.(d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.(e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.

8.1.1. Typically, educational programs for children with an emotional disturbance need to include attention to providing emotional and behavioral support as well as helping them to master academics, develop social skills, and increase self-awareness, self-control, and self-esteem. in the school environment, so that problem behaviors are minimized and positive, appropriate behaviors are fostered. (See the resource section at the end of this fact sheet for more information on PBS.) It is also important to know that, within the school setting: For a child whose behavior impedes learning (including the learning of others), the team developing the child’s Individualized Education Program (IEP) needs to consider, if appropriate, strategies to address that behavior, including positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports.

9. DEAF-BLINDNESS

9.1. A concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.

9.1.1. Because deaf-blindness causes severe communication and other developmental and educational needs, it’s very important for children with deaf-blindness to receive special education and related services to address their individual needs. You can find out more about these services and how to access them by contacting the local elementary school in your area.

10. DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY

10.1. For children from birth to age three (under IDEA Part C) and children from ages three through nine (under IDEA Part B), the term developmental delay, as defined by each State, means a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive development.

10.1.1. Special education services are meant for children over the age of three. Services are provided to eligible children free of charge through the public school system. If your child has passed his or her third birthday and you’re concerned about a developmental delay or disability, call your local school (even if your child isn’t enrolled there) and ask how and where to have your child evaluated under IDEA, our nation’s special education law.

11. SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITY

11.1. Means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations.

11.1.1. Provide instruction and accommodations to address the student’s special needs. Examples: breaking tasks into smaller steps, and giving directions verbally and in writing; giving the student more time to finish schoolwork or take tests; letting the student with reading problems use instructional materials that are accessible to those with print disabilities; letting the student with listening difficulties borrow notes from a classmate or use a tape recorder; and letting the student with writing difficulties use a computer with specialized software that spell checks, grammar checks, or recognizes speech.

12. SPEECH OR LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT

12.1. Means a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

12.1.1. Assistive technology (AT) is a very helpful to students, especially those whose physical conditions make communication difficult. Each student’s IEP team will need to consider if the student would benefit from AT such as an electronic communication system or other device. AT is often the key that helps students engage in the give and take of shared thought, complete school work, and demonstrate their learning.

13. VISUAL IMPAIRMENT, INCLUDING BLINDNESS

13.1. An impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.

13.1.1. Consult with others (e.g., special educators, the O&M specialist) who can help you identify strategies for teaching and supporting this student, ways to adapt the curriculum, and how to address the student’s IEP goals in your classroom. —Find out if your state or school district has materials or resources available to help educators address the learning needs of children with visual impairments. It’s amazing how many do! —Communicate with the student’s parents. Regularly share information about how the student is doing at school and at home.

14. ORTHOPEDIC IMPAIRMENT

14.1. A severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

14.1.1. Cerebral palsy usually doesn't stop kids from going to school, making friends, or doing things they enjoy. But they may have to do these things a little differently or they may need some help. With computers to help them communicate and wheelchairs to help them get around, kids with CP often can do a lot of stuff that kids without CP can do.