My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Liberal

1.1.1. Liberal perspective is concerned primarily with balancing the economic productivity of capitalism with the social and economic needs of the majority.

1.1.2. Liberals place heavy emphasis on issues of equality especially equality of opportunity and fair treatment of all citizens.

1.2. Progressive

1.2.1. Schools should help solve societal problems

1.2.2. Education should promote upward mobility

1.2.3. Schools are essential to the development of individual potential

1.2.4. Schools should embrace democratic society

1.2.5. John Dewey's philosophy of education was the most important influence on what has been termed progressive education.

2. Curriculum and Pedagogy

2.1. Curriculum Theory

2.1.1. Developmentalist Curriculum Developmental Psychologist - Jean Piaget Influential Philosopher - John Dewey Philosophically progressive approach was student centered. Had an integrated core curiculum Focsed on interest of stuudent Focused on different developmentally appropriate stages

2.2. Pedagogical Theory

2.2.1. Transformativone Tradition Phillip Jackson The Practice of Teaching,(1986) ,Derived from teaching methods of Socrates, dialogs of Plato and grounded in the works of John Dewey "All transformative educators believe all teaching begins with the active participation of the student and results in some form of growth" (Sadovonk, et al, 2013) Transformative Educators do not see the transmission of knowledge as the only component of of education. Provides a multidimensional theory of teaching. Learning process through conversations and questions

2.2.2. bell hooks, Engaged Pedgogy Conversation centered leads to development and improvement of critical thinking skills

2.2.3. Piaget, Vortsky's Constructivists Philosophies Project based learning Hands on activities

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Functional Theory

3.1.1. Schools socialize students into appropriate values, sort and select students according to abilities.

3.1.2. "Educational reform is to create structures, programs, and curricula that are technically advanced, rational and encourage social unity"(Sadovnic et al, 2013) .

3.1.3. Functional sociologist believe in the interdependence of the social system. The parts are often examine to see how well they are integrated with each other to produce dynamic energy required to make society work.

3.1.4. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) Perhaps the earliest sociologist who embraced the functional point of view about the relation of school and society. Durkheim believed moral values the were foundation of society Durkheim virtually invented sociology of education. He wrote three books. Moral Education (1962) The Evolution of Educational Thought (1977) Education and Sociology (1956) Durkheim believed education was of critical importance in creating moral unity necessary for social cohesion and harmony.

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individual

3.2.1. Knowledge and Attitude The higher the social class background of the student, the higher the achievement level Academic programs and policies do make a difference in student learning. Student achievement goes up where students are compelled to to take academic classes and consistent disciple, student achievement levels go up. Education is also related to individuals' self-esteem and well-being. More years of education leads to greater knowledge and social participation.

3.2.2. Employment College graduates have greater employment opportunities. Surprisingly the amount of education is weakly related to job performance. Schools do act as gatekeepers in determining who will be employed in high-status occupations.

3.2.3. Teacher Behavior Teachers have a huge impact on student learning, behavior and achievement. Teachers are busy, wearing many different hats. Teachers may have as many as 1,000 interpersonal contacts each day with children in their classrooms. Teachers are role models., instructional leaders and influence student self esteem and self-efficacy.

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. Stake Holders

4.1.1. State Senator District 7 - Paul Sanford

4.1.2. State Representative District 20 - Howard Sandaford

4.1.3. State Superintendent of Education Tommy Bice

4.1.4. Representative on State School Board District 8 - Mary Scott Hunter

4.1.5. Huntsville Superintendent Casey Wardynski

4.1.6. Local School Board Members District 1 - Laurie McCuulley District 2 - Beth Wilder District 3 - * Elisa Ferrell District 4 - Walker McGinnis District 5 - Mike Culbreath

4.2. Nature of Teaching

4.2.1. Role of the teacher by Heck and William's The Complex Roles of the Teacher: An Ecological Perspective (1984) Teachers wear many hats in a single day, "role switching" is demanding and may lead to teacher burnout. Roles of teacher are a colleague, friend, nurturer or of the learner, facilitator of learning, decision maker, professional leader, community activist, researcher, program developer and administrator.

4.2.2. Leiberman and Miller (1984) - the social realities of teaching. They viewed teachers as craftspeople and the craft is learned on the job. Central contradiction of teaching: teachers have to deal with a group of students to teach while dealing with each child as an individual. The "dailiness of teaching" is the rhythm of the teachers day and predictability of routines.

4.2.3. Seymour Sarason wrote that teaching is a lonely profession: few interactions with peers, and administrators seldom give positive feedback.

4.2.4. Profession is routinized and creative. Good teachers are creators.

4.3. Professionalization

4.3.1. Sociologist Dan Lortie (1975) Argues that teaching, particularly elementary school teaching is only partially professionalized.

4.3.2. Educational researcher Linda M. McNeil (1988b) wrote about contradictions of control. Educational purposes of school of can diminish when teachers are part of the controlling process rather than the instructional process.

4.3.3. Educator John Goodlad wanted to raise the level of academic preparation for teachers. Goodlad believed teacher education programs should include a clearly articulated relationship between education and the arts and sciences. Goodlad wanted to create a more cohesive curriculum and professionalize teacher education by enlarging its clinical component.

5. Philosophy of Education

5.1. Progressivism

5.1.1. Pragmatism is an educational philosophy focused on achieving a desired goal. Pragmatism encourages individual to create processes that solve issues related to the desired goal. These goal oriented philosophies are generally concerned with solutions to present day problems.

5.1.2. Curriculum: Curriculum continues to evolve and change as the social order, interest and needs of the community change. Pragmatic curriculum begins with the known and moves toward the unknown. Integrated core curriculum .

5.1.3. Goal of Education: to prepare students to live in a democratic society and to be active participants in their surroundings as implied by Dewey.

5.1.4. Teacher Roll: Teacher takes a facilitator roll and guides students through experimental practice.

5.1.5. Instruction: Process allows students to think for themselves and learn. Freedom is given to students to test their own hypothesis and draw their own conclusions. Students are given time for hands on activities. Grouping can be flexible. Student centered learning through experiential practice and project based learning.

6. History of U.S. Education

6.1. Common School Movement

6.1.1. Horace Mann was one of the greatest American educational reformers.

6.1.2. The establishment of the common school provided free publicly funded elementary schools.

6.1.3. Mann described education as "the balanced wheel" and "the great equalizer of the conditions of men."

6.1.4. Mann believed education could change the social order and foster social mobility. Free public education reflects concern for both stability and order.

6.2. The Democratic-Liberal School

6.2.1. The progressive evolution of a school system to providing equaility of opportunity for all.

6.2.2. Each educational expansion involved attempts to expand educational opportunities to larger segments of the population.

6.2.3. Historians Ellwood Cubberly and Merle Curti viewed the common school movement as a victory for opening U.S. education for all.

6.2.4. Lawrence a. Cremin believed the history involved both expansion of opportunity and purpose. Students from more diverse backgrounds went to school for longer periods of time. Goals of education became more diverse with social goals becoming more important than intellectual ones.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Special Need Individuals

7.1.1. 1975 Congress passetd The Education All Handicapped Children Law.

7.1.2. 1960's parents of special needs formed parent support groups who demanded legislation to ensure their children received adequate and appropriate educations. Six basic principals 1) The right of access to public education programs. 2) Individual services 3) The principal of "least restrictive environment" 4) Set of procedures for determining services. 5) General guidelines for indentifying disabilities. 6) The principals of primary state and local responsibilities.

7.1.3. Mid 1980s - The efficacy of law becaame critical issue for policy makers and advocates of the disabled.

7.1.4. Late 1980s - Critics of special education pushed the Regular Education Intiative (REI) which called for mainstreaming children with disabilities into regular classrooms.

7.2. Response to Coleman Study

7.2.1. Differences among schools do make differences in student outcomes.

7.2.2. Private schools are more effective learning environments than private. More emphasis on acadmic activities. Enforce discipline in a way that is consistent student achievement. Private schools demand more than public schools.

7.2.3. Race and socio-economic composition of the school has a greater effect on student achievement than on individual's race and class.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Argument Against Cultural Deprivation Theory

8.1.1. It removes responsibility for school success and failure from schools and teachers. Places responsibility on families.

8.1.2. Blames the victims of poverty for the effects of poverty.

8.1.3. Compensatory programs "Project Head Start" - have not improved significantly the academic performance of disadvantaged students.

8.2. School Centered Explanations

8.2.1. Effective School Research Suggests school-centered processes help to explain unequal educational achievement by different groups of students. Stedman (1987) listed six characteristics of unusually effective schools to explain why their students achieve academically. Coleman (1987) stated students, not schools were the most significant variable. Researchers do not provide clear findings on implementation, nor provide answers to how effective schools are created. Within school differences are more significant than between school differences.

8.2.2. School Financing Jonathan Kozol (1991), examined public schools in affluent suburbs with poor inner city schools and called for qualization in school financing. Savage Inequalities (1991) Public schools are financed through state, local and federal resources. Most are through local income tax. Serrano v. Priest (1971) California Supreme Court ruled the unequal school financing between wealthy and poor districts unconstitutional. Unequal funding based on property tax has been under attack by communities that argue it is discriminatory under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and it denies equaliy of opportunity.

9. Educational Reform and School Improvement

9.1. Teacher Education

9.1.1. The Carnegie Report: A Nation Prepared: Teachers for 21st Century (1986) Major political and education leaders Improvements in teacher education were necessary pre-conditions for improvements in education. Sweeping changes in educaonal policy - restructuring of schools and the teaching profession, increase of standards in teaching education and teaching, and recruitment of minority teachers,

9.1.2. The Holmes Report: Tomorrow's Teachers (1986) Deans of Education from major research universities Michael Sedlak, co-author of report, " dedicated to improvement of teacher education" and " construction of a genuine profession of teaching. Goals included: raising the intellectual soundness of teacher education, creating career ladders for teachers, entry level requirements, linking schools at university level to schools, and improving schools for teachers and students. Emphais on school-univeristy partnerships and professional development schools.

9.1.3. Linda Darling-Hammond (1996), head of National Commission on Teaching and America's Future "School reform cannot succeed unless it focuses on creating conditions in which teachers teach, and teach well" Recommendations for to overcome the barriers from teacher education improvement: 1) Get serious about standards for both teachers and students. 2) Reinvent teacher preparation and professional development. 3) Fix teacher recruitment and put qualified teachers in every classroom. 4) Encourage and reward teacher knowledge and skill. 5) Create schools that are organized for student and teacher success. (National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 1996).

10. Textbook: Sadovnik, A. R., Cookson, Jr. P., & Semel, S. F. (2013). Exploring education: An introduction to the foundations of education (4th Ed.). New York: Routlodge: Taylor & Francis Group.