My Foundation of Education

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My Foundation of Education by Mind Map: My Foundation of Education

1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. Idealism/Perennialism

1.2. Plato, Socrates

1.3. dialectic- used by Plato to move individuals from the world of matter to the world of ideas

1.4. Search for truth in ideas

1.5. Teachers ask question and lead class discussion of ideas

1.6. reminiscence- the role of the teacher is to bring out that which is already in the student's mind

1.7. Teachers serve as role models in the classroom, promote moral education and linking ideas to actions

1.8. Some lecturing, lots of discussion, analysis, synthesis, and individual research projects (oral and written)

1.9. study the past and classic works and apply to modern day society

1.10. Education is important as a means of moving individuals collectively toward achieving the good

2. Equality of Oppurtunity

2.1. Differs based on class

2.2. Education can be too expensive for lower class families

2.3. Lower SES means lower expectations for a students to finish school

2.4. The level of education of the parents can reflect the children's achievement

2.5. Teachers tend to label students on abilities (a.k.a. their social class) i.e. language usage of middle-class versus working-class

2.6. There is a direct correlation between parental income and children's performance on achievement tests

2.7. The proof of multiple studies challenges the belief in equality of opuurtunity

3. Politics of Education

3.1. Conservatives- William Graham Sumner, Adam Smith, Milton Freidman

3.2. Social Darwinist thought: Social evolution as a process that enables the strongest individuals or groups to survive, and looks at human and social evolution as adaption to changes in the environment

3.2.1. Individuals must compete in order to survive, and human progress is dependent on individual and drive Included Included Excluded

3.3. Individuals have the capacity to earn or not earn their place in a market economy.

3.4. Capitalism is the most economically productive economic system and the system that is most respectful of human needs

3.4.1. Ronald Reagan championed a free market philosophy and argued that welfare state policies were at the head of an American uneasiness

3.5. Role of school is to provide the necessary educational training to ensure that the most talented and hard-working individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize economic and social productivity.

3.6. Schools socialize children into the adult roles necessary to the maintenance of the social order and transmit cultural traditions through what is taught making schools essential to economic productivity and social stability.

3.7. Progressive Vision of Education: schools are key in developing individuals to take action and solve social problems to continue a democratic society

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. Teachers need technical expertise and human relations skills

4.1.1. Project specifications

4.1.2. End User requirements

4.1.3. Action points sign-off

4.2. roles include: colleague, friends, nurturer of the learner, facilitator of learning, researcher, program developer, administrator, decision maker, professional leader, community activist, caring-empathetic-well-rounded role model

4.3. Teachers must role switch ^^^^

4.3.1. Define actions as necessary

4.4. Key of teaching can be exercise of control in order to create oppurtunities for learning not to stifle

4.5. Teaching is very personal proffession

4.6. Teachers work for one big client, few opportunities outside of that

4.7. School based management is important but must be paired with proffesionalization

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. Social Efficiency Curriculum

5.2. Different groups of students with different sets of needs and aspirations should receive different types of schooling

5.3. lead to development of standardized tests

5.4. Developmentalist Curriculum

5.5. Relates the curriculum to the needs and interests of each child at particular developmental stage and relates schooling to the life experiences of each child, making education come alive

5.6. Pedagogic Practice: Transformative Tradition

5.7. Believes that the purpose of education is to change the students in some meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emoionally

5.8. Governor: Robert Bentley; State Senator: Paul Bussman; U.S. Representative: Robert Aderholt; State Superintendent: Tommy Bice; State Board Members: Ella Bell, Jeffery Newman, Al Thompson, Betty Peters, Stephanie Bell, Yvette Richardson, Cynthia McCarty, Mary Hunter; Local Superintendent: Doreen Griffeth; Local Board Members: Steve Sides, Jason Neal, Suzanna Harbin, Brenda Howel, Kim Addison.

6. History of U.S. Education

6.1. Democratic-Liberal Schools

6.1.1. Materials

6.1.2. Personel

6.1.3. Services

6.1.4. Duration

6.2. expanded educational opportunities to larger segment of the population

6.3. Schools are not only for rich or privileged (conservative views)

6.4. Common School Era

6.5. education for women, african americans, created public high schools

6.6. equality of opportunity

6.7. Ellwood Vubberly, Merle Curtie, Lawrence Cremin

6.8. Cremin believed in more students from diverse backgrounds went to school for longer periods of time, the goals of education became more diverse, and social goals becoming more important than intellectual ones

7. Sociological Perspectives

7.1. Functional Theories Perspective

7.1.1. Dependencies

7.1.2. Milestones

7.2. stresses interdependence of the social system; examine how well the parts are intergrating with each other

7.2.1. Schedule

7.2.2. Budget

7.3. Emile Durkheim- first to recognize the sociology of education in late 19th early 20th centuries

7.4. Durkheim believed that education was of critical importance in creating the moral unity necessary for social cohesion and harmony

7.4.1. KPI's

7.5. Idea that schools should socialize students into the appropriate values, and sort and select students according to their abilities

7.6. Educational reform then, should create structures, programs, and curricula that are technically advanced, rational, and encourage social unity

7.7. Schooling effects: Knowledge and attitudes. Higher the social class background- higher the achievement level; difference of schools academic programs and policies does make a difference in learning (Ron Edmonds)

7.8. The more education an individual has, the more likely they are to read newspapers, books, magazines, and to take part in politics and public affairs where they develop their own opinions

7.9. Schooling effects: Employment! Graduating from college will lead to greater employment opportunities, even though the amount of education can be weakly related to job performance. Schools act as gatekeepers in determining who will get employed and high-status occupations, even though schools may not provide significant job skills for their graduates.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. School-centered explanation

8.2. School financing varies significantly between affluent and poor districts.

8.3. This is because much of funding comes form property taxes

8.4. Argue that since affluent areas are able to provide more per pupil because if collecting more tax money this procedure goes against the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment

8.5. States are starting to individually implement state funding so at least the poor districts get enough money to meet their needs even though the rich districts still get to use their tax money

8.6. Some argue for federal funding but it is believed the constitutions places education as a state and local matter and also feel that it would take away the states power and choice

8.7. They tired cutting back on expenses with layoffs of teachers and services but this threatened the academic excellence

8.8. School financing does have an effect on on inequality of education

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School- business partnership where businesses adopt a school

9.2. Business could pledge management assistance and training for restructure and implementation of site-based management, scholarships for poor students to attend college in exchange for the city to raise test scores and improve grade promotion rates and so forth

9.3. Problem is that business do not want to support the public school

9.4. Supporter examples: Marl Zuckerberg ($100 million to Newark, NJ schools), Walton Foundation (funded charter schools and voucher initiatives), Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (contributed to smalls schools and teacher effectiveness)

9.5. School-to-Work Programs extend vocational emphasis to non-college bound students.

9.6. Provides necessary skills for employment and stresses the importance of work-based learning

9.7. Bill Clinton- School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 Provided seed money to states and local partnerships of business, labor, government, education, and community organizations to develop school-to-work systems.

9.8. Goal was to prepare youth for future jobs and careers by allowing them to explore career fields, specific skills for a career field, and credentials