1984 by George Orwell Presentation by Micheal Cowan

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1984 by George Orwell Presentation by Micheal Cowan by Mind Map: 1984 by George Orwell Presentation by Micheal Cowan

1. This explains the Marxist philosophy and the social classes represented in it to give myself greater knowledge to apply to my Marxist criticism

2. I Wonder

2.1. Who is the man described in the image on the wall in the mansion?

2.2. Who is Big brother supposed to represent and why are there constant images of him?

2.3. What does Ingsoc mean?

2.4. What significance does April 4th, 1984 have?

2.5. How did this world come to be? How did the Party come into power?

2.6. Can an idea kill big brother? Can a seed of thought spread amongst the Proles and motivate them to overthrow the party?

2.7. Obrian

2.8. Where does wealth go in productive society?

2.9. Who are directing brains, real power?

2.10. Point of new speak?

2.11. Great Purges?

2.12. Syme feature in fututre of story

2.13. Newspeak, universal language

2.14. Who are the Proles?

2.15. X-leaders play in role to come into play?

2.16. What is ultimate motive of party?

2.17. How will Winston and the Old man's relationship progress?

2.18. Is the girl from the fiction department thought police?

2.19. How will fiction girl and Winston's relationship progress, What are her motives?

2.20. Will Winston's riskier action cause him to take further action

2.21. Does the brotherhood exist?

2.22. When will Goldstein come into play

2.23. Is Obrian referencing Syme?

2.24. IS Obrian part of the Brotherhood? What is the purpose of this meeting?

2.25. Is winstons father someone important?

2.26. Where is winstons mother and sister? Are they dead?

2.27. Are severed limbs common among the proles?

2.28. What are thr ultimate motives of the brotherhood?

2.29. Will Winston's future action affect the party in a meaningful way?

2.30. Why doesnt the party simply choose a common enemy , instead of constantly switching

2.31. What ideals does this “book” posess?

2.32. Did the old man know of the Telescreen?

2.33. Where is Winston? Will he finally gain intimate knowledge of the parties interrogation practice.

2.34. What happened to Julia?

2.35. Is this lady Winston's Mother?

2.36. What is room 101?

2.37. Who is the voice? Has it actually been watching him for 7 years?

2.38. What's OBrian’s deal? Is he truley treacherous this time?

3. Voice

3.1. The thought police use fear as their method of control, while they may not always be watching, they always can watch you. This would create a feeling of fear and uncertainty among the people. This is a poor an immoral way to lead a country

3.2. I respect Winston natural rebellious Instinct and his willingness to Percieve injustices

3.3. The outer party members are forced to act blindly aswell. The party makes their seem just when they are really vandalizing the past to maintain the power of the party. Feeding off the ignorance of the people and workers is a cruel method of employment

3.4. The vandalizing of poetry is creating an abomination of the most purest art forms. The is a major crime in an almost successful attempt to destroy the creativity and passion of the people

3.5. Controlling the media is the one area any governing institution should be refrained from regulating. It allows them to effectively “blind” the people

3.6. NewSpeak is an odd language and ultimately seems pointless. Why does language need to be made more efficient?

3.7. A world in which one party or group has power over everything is a cruel place to exist. Diversity is important towards human progression.

3.8. Is New Speak to simplify the minds of the people is inherently wrong and a cruel method to oppress the people

3.9. Is New Speak to simplify the minds of the people is inherently wrong and a cruel method to oppress the people

3.10. By destroying the range of thought, you are destroying the capacity for logic and critical thinking skills an individual posseses

3.11. New speak is a cruel and creative way of stupefying the people

3.12. Julia possesses very liberal ideas on sex. Props to Orwell for escaping gender roles despite the day and age

3.13. It is almost contradictory in nature that who surround themselves in material possessions and luxuries force all other too live equally

3.14. It is very wrong that the " capitalist of this society are able force woman. (If this statement is true)

3.15. It must be possible to disprove the claims of the party. Anything that is a lie must have evidence contradicting somewhere. Could the party be really be that thorough.

3.16. Forcing previous leader to conform to the new authority is an efficient way to gain the people on your side, but also a cruel and dishonest way

3.17. Can any information really effect the party that heavily. I don't think any evidence could truly threaten the party. Their control is too well rooted in society

3.18. The suppression individualism is crime of its own and should not be employed by any governing body

3.19. It is humerus to hears the rumors about the Capitalist of the past ad their "heinous" crimes

3.20. Julia is clearly an intelligent and rebellious character which I have respect for

3.21. Symes death is a clear sighn of the parties fear of intelligence

3.22. Julia is almost too risky of a character and may endanger winston and herself

3.23. The brotherhood possess very sound philosophies

3.24. Proles is a metaphor for the people and the power they possess.

3.25. Proles is a metaphor for the people and the power they possess.

3.26. Julia seem disinterested in revolution, and will likely not be an important asset in the upcoming events

3.27. Philosophies of book interesting(look up doublethink)

3.28. Parsons is an Idiot

3.29. Winston shows tremendous strength of character throughout his torture, even though he eventually recedes his sanity

3.30. “Slavery is freedom” Quote represents philosophy of party and their lust for power

3.31. The party is choosing to be incredibly ignorant against obvious facts.

3.32. The party goes too far simply for the sake of power.

4. Puzzle Piece

4.1. Ingsoc means English Socialism and the name and founding principles of the party.

4.2. Newspeak exist to narrow the range of though amongst the people

4.3. “NewSpeak” is simply a method of destroying language and simplifying human thought. It is a method to dumb down the populace in order to maintain the party's control and oppression

4.4. 3 classes exist in this world, the inner party which comprised of the ruling minority. The outer party, middle class individuals who carry out the will of the party and the Proles who is lower class minority.

4.5. The Great purges refer to an event which wiped out the original leaders of the party

4.6. One of the parties methods of control is by enforcing false confessions though means of torture and potentially mind control. This is how party ensure those it prosecutes are perceived as guilty by the general public

4.7. Party seeks power to make any claim believable – 16:50 reject evidence of eyes and ears. Abolish critical thinking

4.8. The girl from ficton is named julia and romantically admiring Winston

4.9. Winston risky affair and like minded conversation is whats driving his rebellious instinct

4.10. Julia is not truly rebellious in the sense that she wants to start a revolution, she merely seeks to live how she wants, without ever making an effort to make a true difference

4.11. Obrian confronts Winston, with small thought crimes to let his motives be known, he works with the brotherhood

4.12. Winston has discovered the fringes of the brotherhood with Obrian

4.13. The brotherhood exists, and Obrian is a member

4.14. Charington was surprisingly a member of the thought police. this was very unexpected

4.15. Obrian is evil, tortures winston

4.16. The party purely seeks power in its own form.

4.17. The Brotherhood does not exist and is merely a tool created by the party to catch traitors. However this still doesn't that a resistance of some sort does not exist.

4.18. The parties only goal is to maintain power despite the consequences of that power. In to do this they force those who rebel to believing their views with a cruel method of persuasion and brain washing

4.19. Both Winston and Julia lived through their endevour, but broke their promise and betrayed eachother in the process

4.20. Winston loves Big Brother

5. Reminder

5.1. “Big Brother is Watching you” I have heard this quote before referenced in various other media

5.2. The telescreen's constant playing reminds me of the cult leader Jon Jones, who constantly played his own voice to his followers in Jonestown.

5.3. Big Brother's control of the media remind me of the “4th branch” metaphor which states that the 4th branch of the U.S government is media and propaganda

5.4. This is a very left wing society that is reminiscent of the fear the western countries had of socialism during the cold war

5.5. This political “passion” reminds me of the federal elections in the U.S., In particular, the reactions of the people who are agressive and hateful of one side or the other. This is similar to 1984, except they are forced to be hateful towards one particular side and worship the other.

5.6. Hanging the prisoner as a spectacle reminds me of scene in a film in which the crowd would gather around to hang those accused of Black Magic. The context is different, but the ignorance of the populace is the same.

5.7. Being crazy is simply being outnumbered in belief. This idea presented in 1984 reminds of the story of Galileo who first discovered the earth rotates the sun

5.8. Referencing famous speechs – 04 34:40

5.9. The clearing in which Julia meets Winston reminds me of the clearing along the forest path behind my house where I used to go fishing

5.10. This section reminds me of how both sides used propaganda in WW2. They used it as a method of fear and misinformation to maintain moral for the war. Very similar to the events in 1984

5.11. The antique shop in the text reminds me of the antique shop in Ingersoll where I used to buy Pokemon cards as a kid

5.12. The conversation in Obrian's hut hut reminds me of the scene in the scene in The Matrix where Morpheus presents him with the option to take two differing paths

5.13. Book clearly references Bourgeois society

5.14. The assault on the antique shop and the utter betrayal by its owner reminds me of the scene in Mercy Among the Children where Sydney Henderson was betrayed by his chilhood friend on multiple occasions

5.15. The prison scene with an old but oblivious friend reminds me of the opening scene of a game called sleeping dogs where it starts with the protagonist meeting an old friend hat is now oblivious to the true nature of the main character

5.16. When Obrian is torturing Winston with an almost charismatic demeanor, It is very reminiscent of a scene in the show called Banshee where the protagonist is being tortured by an almost father figure type character. Obrians authority and confidence make this apparent.

6. Character Development

6.1. The state of the world has sapped the spirit from Winston. The constant monitoring has Wilson fearing for his individuality

6.2. The eating of Obrian and the sensing of his rebellion will drive Winston to further pursue his own motivation

6.3. The government interfering with the creative arts is an efficient to crush the spirit of man as Winston is now realizing.

6.4. Winston writing in his journal is his first physical act of rebellion. This is an important milestone for things to come.

6.5. Winston has began to realize the true NewSpeak and how it used to dumb down the populace. This information has further revealed the nature of Big Brother

6.6. “quacking of ducks” is a similiar metaphor to comparing people to sheep, in this scenario individuals are speaking without thinking, only reiterating what they are told. This realization has given Winston insight to the current nature of humanity.

6.7. Winston is becoming aware of the injustices the party commits despite the fact that he has nothing to compare it. HE now knows it is bad, but he does not know if it ever was better. This is his conflict.

6.8. Winston realizes that those who think, those who are capable of independent and intelligent thought will always be "Vaporized"

6.9. Winston seeks freedom in any with which it may come as in his diary entry involving "The Woman in the Light"

6.10. "Become conscious until they rebel, cant rebel until they become conscious" - Winston sees the truth of the parties control in this section

6.11. The bareness of life becomes apparent to Winston. Winston realizes that this is the true evil of the Party. The remove the spirit of the human race and force them to act as tools working at optimal efficiency.

6.12. Winston reflects on his past actions and realizes and he would now have acted differently. For example say that presented information that would put the party into question, he would have kept it. This is Winston recognizing his own growth as a character

6.13. Winston doubts himself briefly, but gains courage when he thinks of Obrian. Obrian grants Winston the confidence he needs to take furtur action

6.14. Winston realized that freedom really means the populace is entitled to honest information

6.15. Hope lies in the proles, future aspirations? Winston realizes the only method of revolution involves the proles being free.

6.16. Courage develops to question and discover the past

6.17. Actively takes place in rebellious actions, by talking to old man and renting a room. he now has taken his first steps to putting down the part

6.18. Inability to act 05 1600

6.19. Book reenforces Winston's views

6.20. Winston is engaing in riskier behaviour, meeting girl

6.21. Julia's rebellion will inspire Winston

6.22. Winston realizes corruption and animalistic instinct will destroy the party, only thing that will

6.23. Winston relationship with Julia will spark a sense of rebellion and revolution in Winston

6.24. Winstons rebellious affair has made him feel better in general and granted him a sense of freedom that the party stripped away 07 25

6.25. Julia Will most likley inspire Winston to confront Obrian

6.26. Winston's mother has had a profound effect on his personality

6.27. Winston is coming to a realization that death imminent and only loyalty perseverance mind are important

6.28. Winston Joing the brotherhood will give him a renewed sense of conviction

6.29. Reading the “book” will reinforce Winston's beliefs and provides his doubts with greater context

6.30. Winston realizes being a minority does not make him insane “Sanity is not statistical”. He has gained confidence in his own independent thought

6.31. This “reintegration” will profoundly effect Winston

6.32. Winston loves big brother

7. Camera

7.1. Winston described in this section represents in my opinion a stereotypical lower class citizen

7.2. Julia is first described is first described as a beautiful woman who is a waste of her beauty. She is shown to be prudish and loyal. She wears the uniform with ease and focuses on her duty 100% with nothing in her face giving away her true intentions

7.3. “There seemed to be no colour in anything, except the posters that were plastered everywhere” The text described a world that is completely overrun with the image of this man, this man has effectively sapped the spirit from the rest of the world

7.4. The world as described in this seems very efficient, yet dull. The world seems to lack spirit and enthusiasm. It is merely going through the motions. The feels like a very depressing environment.

7.5. In this section Parson is described as a sweaty dimwitted man that represents the perfect party member. Ignorant and enthusiastic.

7.6. When Winston encounters the prostitute on the street, it reminds of a very noir style theme. The way the red lipsick contrasts with the pale skin and the dark environment. Almost like a scene from old detective films and similar aesthetics

7.7. In this Section, the Proles are describes as chaotic and savage, compared to the rest of the world. They are portrayed as stupid with their attire and facial features. They are portrayed as ignorant towards the rest of the world, which is sad because they are the only hope of revolution

7.8. The glass bobble in this scene is described in fantastic detail. You can can almost feel the glass as if it were in your hands

7.9. Obrian's apartment is seen in this scene, It is shown to be lavish with real food and luxuries only afforded to the inner party. It possesses a large size and shows a large contrast between how the inner party lives compared to the other citizens of Oceania.

7.10. The room above the antique shop has a very nostalgic feel to it. I can easily picture the beam of sunlight shining through the window giving light to the particles of dust.

7.11. In this section, the antique shop owner is definetly described with a more devious tone than in previous iterations

7.12. Julia, once described as the perfect party member is now being described with a type of rebellious flare. She is now more akin to the woman In Winston's dreams than the character she feigns to be for the party.

7.13. This section creates a very vivid description of the party. not necessarily in a visual sense, more of a tonal image of oppression and hopelessness. Very abstract

7.14. The entire structure pf the political party and how they operated creates an almost flow chart like image

7.15. Inside the prison is described in great depth and allows for a very vivid image

7.16. In this section, the physical description of Winston makes his alteration apparent. He is weak and dreary due to his containment by the party. The physical characteristics described make this very clear

8. Literary Criticisms

8.1. Marxism - In order to explore the relation to Marxist theory presented in 1984, the basic social structure of the classes must be explored. The world of 1984 and in particular the fictional country of Oceania is split into three main social classes. First we have the bourgeoisie, known in the text as the inner party. This class represents the controlling minority that control the “lower” classes through various methods of manipulation and governing. They control through vandalizing literature, suppressing creativity and by making production trivial. The second class represented is the outer party, the social class that Winston himself is part of. This is an in between class who have follow the commands of inner party. The final class would be defined as the proletariat according to Marxist theory. In the text, they are more simply referred to as the Proles. The Proles represent about 85% of the fictional population and are manipulated into believing they have no real power. In the text, the state of the society is presented through the three tenants of the parties slogan in the meta-text known as “The Book”. The first tenant “War is Peace” represents one of the parties methods of sustaining the social order. It is in the party's interest to keep the people working, but also to keep them on the verge of poverty. This is because the social structure is not based on wealth, but rather the assurance of the parties control. If allowed, the proles requirement of work would advance themselves to a position where they would realize they no longer need the party and they would sweep them aside. To combat the production of the proles and to keep them poor, the party uses what they produce in a never ending war which may or may-not even truly exist. To the party, the details of the war do not mater. It does not who is dropping the bombs, just that they are being dropped. The war allows for an outlet that prevents the advancement of the proles by making their production meaningless. The second tenant “Freedom is Slavery” represents the faults presented in a free society. In a free society, transfer of power and change are common occurrences because history is known, and people understand that change is possible. However, in order for the party to maintain their power, they must remove the notion that change is possible. They due this by controlling and effectively destroying any concept of the past. They remove the freedom of thought by forcing people to live in ignorance of the events that shaped the world. According to the party, they have always been and always will be, what the party says is indisputable reality. This prevents the people from every truly being free because freedom is perceived as a weakness compared to the truth presented by the party. This relates well to the third tenant “Ignorance is strength”. This essentially states that by altering the truth, stripping away creativity and spirit, and by narrowing an individuals range of thought society s a whole can be stronger and more constant. This is where the term doublethink comes into play. The party is making people accept contradiction by maintaining the ignorance of the outer party and the proles. This how the social hierarchy is maintained.

8.2. Femminist - Orwell identifies lust, love, friendship, sex and family to be what makes us human and therefore what the Party must destroy. Orwell in this text displays a very liberal attitude and places no hierarchy between lust and love. He seems to respect a woman’s choice in regards to sexual activity and is only angry at the party for repressing a very human act. This is seen when Winston places zero shame on Julia even though she posses multiple sexual partners. Also, Orwell appears to have understood that rape is violence and not sex long before feminists brought this to public attention. Orwell presents Winston as fantasizing about raping and murdering Julia because he hates her and because she is celibate. He doesn’t victim blame Julia for being slutty or wearing revealing clothes. In the contrary it is her celibacy and political ideas which make him want to rape her. She wears the same uniform he does. Orwell sees that woman as independent and rape being an act of hatred rather than just lust. Also, Orwell displays Winston as very understanding towards Julia’s sexual endeavours. She pursues Winston, has had many lovers since she was 16, only wants casual relationships and works fast, succeeding in sleeping with Winston almost immediately after they’re alone. Orwell never suggests she is dirty or worth less because she enjoys sex. Instead Winston seems to admire her more because she is confident enough to do what she wants instead of submitting to the sexual oppression of the government. In short Orwell displays Winston with a very liberal attitude towards sex rape and gender roles that are being oppressed by the government.

8.3. Historical - When Orwell was writing this novel, various totalitarian governments existed. Mainly in Spain, Germany and the Soviet Union. The publication year also coincided with the establishment of the Communist Party in China in 1949. These governments strongly resembled the Ingsoc party presented in 1984. These governments restricted the populations access to the outside world in an attempt to suppress their freedoms and manipulating their actions. This is why the novel is overrun with ideas of hunger, forced labour, mass torture, imprisonment, and constant monitoring by the authorities. Orwell had spent time in Spain during the peak of their Fascist regime as a correspondent for the BBC, and he was very disappointed with how that administration turned against its citizens. “He felt their media was nothing more than a propaganda machine, hiding the truth and inflating half-truths to disillusion the masses.”. This is likely to be the reason why Winston Smith, the main character in 1984, also works for a media agency, since it is through his actions that the reader knows how deeply the Party affects and controls any public expression. It is also Winston's annoyance with this manipulation which encourages his rebellion against the Party. Orwell must have seen and strongly disproved of this manipulation in his own experiences. The novel is also set in a state of constant war, since Orwell was writing right after World War II. Orwell was able to see in his travels the experiences of the people in Spain, Germany, and the Soviet Union, on which he bases the condition of the proles in the novel and the suffering expressed in Winston's childhood. Orwell creates a "dystopia" in the novel, which is the opposite of a "utopia," thereby establishing a model of what the world should NOT become. He is therefore suggesting the qualities of a utopia, which would be the opposite of the conditions found in Oceania, like ample food, freedom of expression, and self-determination.

9. Connections

9.1. At the beginning of the text I wondered who Julia was and how she would affect the plot of the text. As it turns out, Julia was an extremely influential character in regards to Winston decisions. She showed Winston that rebellion was possible and encouraged thoughts Winston already possessed. If wasn't for Julia, Winston would have been less inclined to take risks or make an attempt to take action against the party. He may perfectly well still have been keeping his thought of rebellion to himself

9.2. At first, the method the party uses are a mystery. No one really knows why they do what they do. The people are so ignorant towards reality, they merely accept the parties actions. In the end, it turns out the party does everything in order to stay in power. The war, the new speak language and the constant monitoring are simply a method used by the party to ensure their reign of control never ends.

9.3. Obrian was a very deceptive character, who takes part in a very intricate system to discover, capture and reform thought criminals. At first I thought Obrian was a stranger with rebellious tendencies very much like Winston himself. Then when he revealed himself as a brotherhood member, I completely believed it. Perhaps it was me clinging on to last string of hope I had left for Winston and the world in which he lived. But alas, I was wrong. In the end, Winston turned out to be a high ranking and loyal member of the inner party who rooted out traitors. He encouraged rebellion very subtly just to see who was prone to it. Obrian was a complex character who really drove the story forward.

9.4. When I first read the description of Big Brother on the telescreen, I was curious who this ever present figure of authority was. As it turns out he wasn't a man at all, at least not anymore. He was merely a personification of the parties values and control they possessed. It was easier for the proles to worship a single man vs an entire party. As such Big Brother was created. He was simply another method of control created by the party.

9.5. The brotherhood seemed to be the last thread of hope within the story. It was the only chance Winston had of really overthrowing the party and Big Brother. As it turns out the brotherhood did not really exist. It was merely a method to root out traitors. A method both Winston and myself the reader fell for. It was all another method of control. The brotherhood was simply another branch of a system who's only goal was to maintain power

9.6. Over the course of the text Winston began to doubt the party more and more. As a result he became more and more rebellious. At first he was a silent but curious about the party and its methods of control. But he eventually began to rebel in very simple methods that escalated. At first he simply wrote in a diary , but later he tried to full out join the resistance. Winston ended simply being an example Orwell used to show that Big Brother could not be stopped

9.7. Is the system truly perfect? This is a question I asked myself throughout the text. It is. The system is perfect. They account for every aspect of every detail. They maintain absolute power through the illusion of war and even rebellion. They keep the people poor, stupid, ignorant and productive. They do not kill, they merely reform those who do not agree with them. No hole or flaw exist. Neither does any sort of resistance.

9.8. Will the proles make any impact? Winston himself referred to the proles as the only hope for change within the text. This is did not prove to be true towards the end of the text. The party ensures a number of factors remain consistent amongst the proles. They are always on the verge of poverty and always ignorant towards any reality other than what the party tells them to be true. In this way, they have no hope of ever realizing their potential for change, let alone acting on it

9.9. This connection is in regards to the visual aspect of the text. At first the man on the wall confused. Why would he be everywhere. Then throughout text the constant surveillance and the dystopian state is revealed. The world uses this image to represent the parties authority and the control of Big Brother. It is a symbol fear for some and worship for most.

10. Secondary Sources

10.1. The Cold War

10.1.1. This Section Gives greater context to the event known as the cold war which was brought up in a couple of my reminders. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War

10.2. What is Socialism?

10.2.1. This article gives me greater knowledge of how socialism gives power to the government of companies. This has granted me greater context for the Marxist and historical criticisms http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/socialism

10.3. What was the world like when the book was published?

10.3.1. This article describes what the 1950's were all about. The era in which the text was publishes. It describes the economic boom and prosperity that occurred after the WW2 http://www.history.com/topics/1950s

10.4. 1984 - David Bowie

10.4.1. While searching for other media relating to George Orwell, I found this fantastic song by David Bowie https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KByxC7B9WH0

10.5. 2+2=5 – Radiohead

10.5.1. I also found this song, which in my opinion manages to encompass the theme and weariness the text very well https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lstDdzedgcE

10.6. Better understanding

10.6.1. I used this spark notes webpage to assist me in my understanding of the text and the motifs of various characters. It provided greater context to my own opinions and knowledge http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/1984/themes.html

10.7. Historical events around the date of publication

10.7.1. This article provides context to historical governments and events that were experienced by George Orwell http://www.jiffynotes.com/1984/HistoricalContext.html

10.8. George Orwell Biography

10.8.1. This a detailed biography repesenting George Orwell's life http://www.jiffynotes.com/1984/HistoricalContext.html

10.9. What really is a Marxist philosophy?

11. Connections W/ Mercy Among the Children

11.1. If Sydney Henderson and his family had a title for their social class, It may very be the Proles. They both exist in poverty on right the verge of poverty. As seen multiple times throughout Mercy among the children, the family is shown to have no real power. In fact Sydney Henderson fears power and what it might do to him. In 1984 the proles also fear the gaining of power. For anyone that has power in 1984 is automatically a threat to big brother. In contrast, Sydney fears power for he fears what will become of him if he is able to obtain it .When Lyle obtains power he becomes violent with questionable Morales. In 1984, the proles are kept in a state where the cannot obtain power. This is similar to how Sydney's peers take advantage of his lack of power and blame him for crimes he did not commit. Both Sydney and Proles are disadvantaged for the benefit of others. This is the root of their similarities. According to to those perceived to be above them, they only exist to serve and are not allowed to be treated fairly or respected.

11.2. The perpetual state of war in 1984 can resembled in the lives of the Henderson family. In 1984 war is used as a means to keep the proles on the constant verge of poverty. Due to the violence, they cannot progress or advance their social standing at all, a cruel plot by the party. In Mercy Among the Children, the violence and cruelty that surrounds the Henderson family effectively prevents them from escaping their life disadvantaged life of poverty. Also similar to 1984, this allows them to be easily controlled by those around them. The party uses poverty as an efficient method of control. While they are living in poverty they are forced to rely on the party for all they need and as such can never escape their position. Those who claim to consider Sydney Henderson to be a friend constantly take advantage him and as a result of his poverty it works. It also entraps him in his life of poverty. In short, both the Henderson's and the proles are a constant state of war and thus constantly manipulated and controlled.

11.3. A major theme in Mercy Among the Children is how modern society have mistaken public opinion for truth and have at times allowed this to diminish their better nature. A major theme in 1984 is that reality is not a physical thing, but rather a matter of belief. If every individual believes something to be true, is it not true? The Henderson family is constantly discredited because the group mind of the town is set against them. The entire town believes them to be evil, so are they not evil? Both books present the dangers of individuals who merely follow the opinion of the crowd and don't formulate their own thought. In 1984 it causes humanity to be completely stripped away. In Mercy Among the Children, it cause a multitude of false accusations against the Henderson family. In both texts, individual thought is shown to be an extremely important factor in preserving humanity, society and dignity.

11.4. A striking number of similarities exist between Sydney Henderson and Winston. Both Sydney and Winston thoroughly question the world in which they live and actively seek a method in which to change their position. Whether it be going to university or overthrowing the government of a dystopian future. However, a major contrast of these two characters is how Winston is constantly doubting what he believes, whereas Sydney is constant in what he believes. In this regard Winston could be more accurately compared to Lyle. However it is Sydney I would place him most closely too for they both possess the ability to see beyond the obvious and create their own thoughts and opinions on the events around them. They both refuse to conform to the roles society has set out, and despite their efforts both were forced o accept those roles.