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The 4 Ennobling Tasks (that are Known/Realized Truths/Realities for the Noble Ones) by Mind Map: The 4 Ennobling Tasks (that are
Known/Realized Truths/Realities for
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The 4 Ennobling Tasks (that are Known/Realized Truths/Realities for the Noble Ones)

supramundane right liberation

supramundane right knowledge/understanding

Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ, kusalassa upasampadā; Sacitta­pari­yo­dapa­naṃ, etaṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ (DHP#183) Refraining from all evil actions Committing to wholesome intentions Purifying the mind ...This is the message of the Buddha(s)

The Central Goal: Liberation from Dukkha (the ultimate/supreme freedom/peace/happiness/bliss to be had in this very life). One Taste - Freedom.

8-Fold Noble Path

Right/Skillful/Wise/Wholesome/Attuned/Complete/Perfect = leading to liberation (freedom from dukkha) Wrong/Unskillful/Foolish/Unwholesome/Disruptive/Disturbing/Flawed = leading to more dukkha "Thus, bhikkhus, the path of the disciple in higher training possesses eight factors, the arahant possesses ten factors."

Pannya (Wisdom), Right View, yoniso manisikara to:, kamma (personal responsibility) - actions, thoughts (2 kinds of thought in next step), 4 truths, 5 clinging-aggregates (sankharas) (of conditionality? of self?), the voice of another: 1. a wise&good teacher 2. admirable friendship - how do you feel after hanging out with this friend? joyous or uneasy/confused?, Right Intention/Resolve/Dedication/Wish/Desire Aim/Purpose?, proper renunciation (nekhamma) [against craving (or sensuality?)], abandoning unwholesome, nekhamma - renunciation, letting go, 2 kinds of thought, proper good-will [against ill-will], cultivating wholesome, 2 kinds of thought (sutta) (also 1st lines of dhammapada), wholesome, bhaavanaa, unwholesome, nekhamma, mettaa bhaavanaa, proper harmlessness [against harmfulness], restraining unwholesome, siila, cultivating wholesome, karunaa bhaavanaa

Siila (Morality/Discipline), Right Action, Right Speech, Right Livelihood

Samaadhi (Unification, Summation), Right Effort, the work done (energy/effort towards view, intention, mindfulness, etc.), 4 Right Efforts, Right Mindfulness, SatiPatthana, Right Concentration

1. Truth of Dukkha (As A Task: what is to be known/understood completely) dukkha sacca

all *conditioned/conditional* phenomena are dukkha

3 Kinds of Dukkha, 1. Pain (dukkha-dukkhataa) - dukkha. level of feeling and sensation, pain, birth, old age, sickness, death, 2. Change (viparinaama-dukkhataa) - anicca. includes pleasures, if indulged in for too long, they have a tendency to lead to dissatisfaction, hedonic treadmill, pleasant in remaining dissatisfying in changing, anicca - impermanence of conditioned phenomena, 3. Conditionality (samkhaara-dukkhataa) - anatta. (insubstantiality, no conditioned phenomena has an independent existence), the most fundamental suffering, subtle discontentment, unsatisfactoriness, ennui, ego-clinging, meaninglessness, pervasive conditioning, existing in a conditioned way, 3 marks of existence applied to the conditional, dependent origination? (at root of other 2 levels of suffering), 5 Khandaas (conditioned aggregates/functions/aspects) what a human being identifies as self, clings to, and that clinging results in dukkha 1 vs 2-5: one division is between rūpa and nāma, form vs name, materiality vs mentality, appearances and concepts 1-4 vs 5: Another is between viññana and everything else, that consciousness takes a distinct position in experience (this is probably the earliest division, Sujato) all Khandas are internal and external?, rūpa - form/materiality (internal and external), object, shape, figure, appearance, external world, 5 sense impressions, touches, sights, sounds, smells, tastes, 4 elements, solidity/mass/extension ("earth"), cohesion/liquidity ("water"), heat/temperature ("fire"), movement/mobility ("wind"), internal world, 5 sense organs, or sense faculties?, body, eyes, ears, nose, tongue, 4 elements, solidity/mass/extension ("earth"), cohesion/liquidity ("water"), heat/temperature ("fire"), movement/mobility ("wind"), vedanā - affection, sensation/feeling (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral), arises from phassa (contact), better translation?: sense experience - sense experience is dependent on the confluence of the sense organ the sense object and the sense consciousness), 3 categories, dukkha - unpleasant, painful dislike, sukkha - pleasant like, adukkhamasukkha - neutral disinterest, saññya - cognition, perception, apperception, discrimination, recognition, registers whether an object is recognized or not, arises from phassa (contact), sankhāra - conation, mental formations/impulses/habits/reactions/volitions/fabrications - thoughts, ideas, opinions, prejudices, compulsions, decisions, intentions?, attitudes?, arises from phassa (contact), viññana - subjective-knowing, consciousness/discernment, cognition, cognizance, that which discerns, awareness, awareness devoid of other aspects of mind (conceptually at least), arises from nāma-rūpa: mind and matter, naming and form, mentality and materiality, appearances and concepts, mind-consciousness, eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, nose-consciousness, body-consciousness, ( mano/manas - receiving mind (equivalent to nāma?), thoughts vinnyaana - executive mind citta - judging mind ) mano - the mind as the 6th sense (sensing thoughts), also the aggregator of the lower 5 senses viññana - consciousness, subjectivity, the subjective experience, observer citta - perception and feeling, broadest concept of mind

2. Truth of the Origin of Dukkha (As A Task: what is to be abandoned) samudaya sacca

desiring/craving/thirsting for and clinging/grasping/attachment to what is pleasurable (desires, thirsting and feeding), and aversion to what is not, , results in dukkha an even deeper level identifying with and clinging to the 5 khandas (ignorance) ...self-grasping mind

3 kinds of craving, kāma-taṇhā: craving for sensuality, conditioned by pleasant feeling? greed poison, bhāva-taṇhā: craving for identity/becoming/existence, conditioned by neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling? ignorance poison, vibhāva-taṇhā: craving for dis-identity/non-becoming/non-existence/formless-existence, conditioned by painful feeling? aversion poison

paticca samuppada - dependent origination / inter-relatedness of phenomena, cause and effect, Ignorance/delusion (ignorance of the 4 Truths/Realities, deludedly clinging to 5 Khandas), craving & clinging, Greed/passion/accumulation/neediness/attraction? (towards that which is perceived as pleasant), Aversion/hatred/ill-will (towards that which is perceived as unpleasant), many angles of attack - all links in mundane dependent origination are valid, it's a matter of personal disposition? or is there only a weakening of dukkha by the others? is it only craving (taṇhā, that is the ultimate origin) that is valid? *to fill in: the ways to attack at different angles on 12 nidānas

Āsavas (influxes/defliements/taints) most often referred to in suttas

Akusala-mūla (unwholesome roots) sometimes instead of āsavas, the akusala mūla are referred to, and ?even less? of the time they are referred to as, passion/greed/desire cause - theme of the attractive antidote - attend appropriately to the theme of the unattractive aversion/ill-will/hatred cause - theme of irritation antidote - attend appropriately to good-will as an awareness-release delusion/ignorance cause - inappropriate attention antidote - attend appropriately / appropriate attention, sometimes wrong view (maccha? diṭṭhi)  is included as a taint

3. Truth of the Cessation of Dukkha (As A Task: what is to be witnessed/realized/attained) nirodha sacca

that putting an end to this craving/thirsting, also means the cessation of dukkha (dependent arising - when this is not, that is not)

Vimutti (freedom, liberation) & Nibbāna (cooling, quenching, extinguishing)

transcendent dependent origination? (12 links of liberation)

etymology: nir = without/non udaya = arising non-arising (opposite of samudaya = simulataneous arising, co-arising)

4. Truth of the Path to Liberation/Freedom (As A Task: to cultivate/train/develop) magga sacca

The Path

The Middle Way (non-extremism), in path terms: between (AKA not-concerned-with), asceticism (body-torture etc.), low hedonism (sensual indulgence), Appamada - careful/caring diligence Yoniso Manasikāra - Wise Work of the Mind, Wise Mind-Action, Appropriate/Wise Attention/Engagement/Ideation/Consideration (to the central problem/question: Dukkha, 4 Truths, 5 clinging-aggregates of dukkha) (manasi+karoti), Bhāvanā - cultivation/development   Nekkhamma - renunciation/simplicity/letting-go (needs vs wants) renunciation of sensuality (kaama-loka world of sensuality/sensual-experience) (anti-dote to sensuality) these three following sections dāna, sīla, bhāvana are the "three bases for meritorious action" the "three bases of higher training" are pañña, sīla, samādhi (and are for monastics only?), Dāna - generosity/charity/giving attitude (non-greed) (antidote to greed), degrees of dāna, attitudes as giver or receiver, gift of forgiveness, gratitude to parents, teachers, etc, 3 modes, bodily actions, speech, mind, considerations, worthiness (are they virtuous), necessity? (do they really need it), Sīla (Moral/Virtuous-Discipline/Habit/Behavior) -  a means of educating/training the aspirant's conduct (non-hatred) (antidote to ill-will), Restraints/Avoidances:, 1. The Training on the Unwholesomeness of Killing (at a deeper level -any kind of harm/harming) (non-harming as foundation of other 4), 2. The Training on the Unwholesomeness of Taking what is not Given, the positive aspects are usually included with the negative restraints in the suttas, include here, 3. The Training on the Unwholesomeness of Sensual Misconduct (of all the senses, including body/sexual) (but at it's most basic - restraint from sexual misconduct), 4. The Training on the Unwholesomeness of False Speech, 5. The Training on the Unwholesomeness of Intoxication/Heedlessness, for monastics - Vinaya, 2 principles underly Vinaya (emotional responses arising from wise reflection yoniso manisikāra) compassion (by seeing others as like oneself) and protection (by ahimsa) may actually be the underlying principles, 1. Hiri, = intelligent shame also translated as conscience, intelligent because it arises based on reflection on duties, responsibilities, aspirations until they become very clear (cultivation), 2. Otappa, = fear (of the results of unwholesome actions) also translated as prudence, arises based on reflection on the law of kamma - focus on negative - that unwholesome actions (based in āsavas) lead to dukkha suffering for self and others (restraint), Attitudes/Behaviors/Observances/Purifications:, Cultivating the 4 Brahma-Viharas, Mettā (loving-friendliness) (non-hatred/good-will) (antidote to hatred/ill-will) (root of other 3), karunā - compassion (reaction to dukkha), muditā - sympathetic joy (reaction to sukkha), Pañña - Wisdom (non-delusion) (antidote to delusion), Samma-Sati?=4-satipatthanas=Anupassana?=sati+sampajañña+atappa Anupassana=sustained watching/observation Sati-Sampajañña  - 'recolllection of awareness', developing samatha-vipassana (both samatha and vipassana)   (is vipassana related to dhamma-vicaya?), Samatha - stilling, settling other words: pacifying/tranquilising/calming the body (and/or mind, etc), by undistractedness (concentration)?, serenity, quietitude, stillness emphasized over the tranquility/pacification samatha as stilling and ekaggatā as stillness (as developing sati?) samatha is process, more verb-like, leading to samādhi which is more noun-like, a state, a result (although this too is conditioned) in the suttas ekaggatā is probably most accurately translated as stillness/one-placedness/"still mental state" cetaso ekodibhāva=unification of mind so that "cittassa ekaggatā ayaṁ samādhi" translates to "stillness of mind - this is composure"    misc. practice probably not related to Early Buddhism - the practice of commanding distracting movements/thoughts to STOP (abbhaya mudra), before distractions arise, at their very inception, 5 Hindrances to meditation   lower hindrances: (at the level of thought/intention/attitude), 1. desire (lobha) - dāna is antidote, asubha unattractive/ugliness of the body contemplation, guarding the sense doors  2. aversion (dosa) - mettā is antidote pushing vs resisting, towards vs against (2 kinds of thought, abandon/renounce/cease/let-go of unwholesome (akussala), but apply vitakka and vicāra (taking up and investigating), give attention to, attend to, the wholesome (kussala)) higher hindrances: (at the level of energy/effort) 3. restlessness/agitation 4. dullness   saddha (faith/confidence as antidote? conditioned by dukkha (or seeing dukkha?)) 5. doubt All 5 Hindrances are Abandoned by SatiPaṭṭhānā (AN9.64) SatiPaṭṭhāna may have originally just been the 4 postures (in gradual training, though in these instances it is described as sampajañña not sati and it is not established, he looks forward and away clearly comprehending, poops, pees, etc..., all these ways of clearly comprehending the body have to do with moral composure and ethics in the training of a monk, only later was it meditation satipatthana when he sits down in the forest and establishes as establishments sati for/of kāya, vedanā, citta, dhamma) -Sujato on Bronkhorst in History of Mindfulness SN47.10 how to cultivate jhāna, brightening bases described in AN11.12, leading to Samādhi - composure (Bhikku Kumara) - *wholesome*/appropriate type of collectedness/brought-together-ness/summation/stillness ...non-distractedness (Shankman) ...imperturbability, attentive stillness, stability, unification, stillness, broader than Jhāna (jhāna can be thought of as landmarks/levels of samādhi) sutta jhāna vs visuddhimagga jhāna visuddhimagga jhāna about concentrating on a single object (one-pointed) sutta jhāna about concentrating *the mind itself* (really composure, collectedness)   moha samādhi - delusional, unwholesome, comfort without awareness (methadone) micchā samādhi - wrong samādhi, improper, unwise, 2 kinds, inclusive - (unity, wide open, still-mind) (in this - phenomena seem changeless? or the mind does?) - ---could say this is actually the Buddha's recommendation, attending to a theme (or field) rather than a single object/point samprajñata/savikalpa/sabija? (Patañjali analogue to the rūpa jhānas) asamprajñata/nirvikalpa/nirbija? (analogue to the formless spheres ? (however, not including the 9th?)) in early Brahmanical sources (Upaniśads/Vedānta) the way to the formless meditations is by the five spiritual faculties (or rather the same list of 5 as the Buddhist 5 spiritual faculties indirya), culminated in Jhāna (meditative states or meditations) literally means blazing or shining, can be translated as illumination "he abides engaging in" ...the 1st jhāna, etc... viśuddhimagga:fixed/absorbed samādhi, 4 stages of samādhi, although samādhi may be a broader term than the specific jhānas (many examples in suttas) described in commentaries as the Rūpa Jhānas (fine material jhanas), 1st Jhāna, vitakka - thought (thinking), internal/mental speech, subverbal-speech other words: spontaneous thought, application of the mind on to its object/field/area/theme in profound meditation, lifting the mind towards the object/field/area/theme, seed of thought, visuddi-magga: _ [in 1st Jhāna verbal/external speech has stopped], vicāra - consideration, free-association, thoughts going around in the head other words: directed thought, "more thinking" to vitakka's "thinking", "roaming about" (when present with vitakka, roaming about upon what is already there by vitakka), a connected string of thoughts (vitakkas), ponder, evaluate, examine, more subtle than vitakka, the subtle towardsness pressure remaining after the vitakka is dropped, sustain, the gentle ripples of holding/pressing, or the ripples/discursiveness around internal/mental speech/thought (continuing along a thread of thought after the initial seed) visuddi-magga:, pīti - joy (physical/psycho-physical) (citta-saṅkhāra) desert metaphor - finding water in the desert other words: joyful interest, glee, elation, upliftment, joy, exhiliration, ecstasy, coarser than sukkha,, Born of Seclusion (from sensuality, unwholesome states - i.e. hindrances) (previous state), sukkha - happiness (feeling/emotion) (vedanā-saṅkhāra) desert metaphor - drinking water found in the desert other words: ease, pleasure, pleasant,, bliss, more subtle or subdued than pitti, more pleasant, refined, less agitated than piiti,, Born of Seclusion (from sensuality, unwholesome states - i.e. hindrances) (previous state), 2nd Jhāna, Noble Silence (mentally silent, since there is no more vitakka and vicaara, no internal-speech/subverbal-speech/verbal-formation), Gaining, inner tranquility / internal illumination, unification of mind, Factors, piiti - joyful interest, glee, elation, upliftment, joy, exhiliration, ecstasy (citta-sankhaara aggregate of mental/volitional formations), coarser than sukkha, desert metaphor - finding water in the desert, Born of Samādhi (previous state?), sukkha - pleasure, pleasant, happiness, bliss (aggregate of feeling), more subtle or subdued than pitti, more pleasant, refined, less agitated than piiti, desert metaphor - drinking water found in the desert, Born of Samādhi (previous state?), 3rd Jhāna, Abandoning Pīti (joy)... and [thus also] Abandoning (sorrow/grief), Remaining, imperturbable, mindful, clearly perceiving/recognizing, Factors, sukkha - ease/happiness *with the body* (sukkhañca kāyena), upekkha - equanimity/equipoise, 3rd Jhāna best described as 'contentment' or 'pleasant abiding' = happiness and equanimity "the Noble Ones declare he is equanimous, mindful, and abides happily", 4th Jhāna, Abandoning, Pleasure & Pain, Happiness & Unhappiness (adukkhamasukkhaa) also joy & grief/sorrow (as in 3rd jhāna) "With the abandoning of happiness and the abandoning of suffering, just as with the earlier disappearance of delight & dejection", 'quiet stillness' imperturbable, aloof (metaphor of pure light white cloth covering totality of body, pure and bright) - 'quiet stillness' purity of equanimity and mindfulness (purest? sati, purest? upekkha) equanimity/equipoise (neutral feeling(vedanaa)) neither pleasant/pleasureful nor unpleasanat/painful etymology - literally: looking on, watching over, watching closely, observing *MN66.19 describes all jhāna as sukkha (happy), even nibbāna as happy, the happiness of no feelings, 4 arūpāyatana (formless/immaterial bases/spheres) viśuddhimagga: 4 arūpa jhāna (similar to Patañjali's asamprajñata/nirvikalpa/nirbija), 5th - base of boundless space, Transcending, *bodily sensations*, a sense of resistance (fear?), perceptions of diversity, Thinking? maybe: clearly knowing? (not really thinking), space is infinite, 6h - base of boundless consciousness, Transcending, sphere of infinite space, Thinking?, consciousness is infinite, 7th - base of nothingness, Transcending, sphere of infinite consciousness, Thinking?, there is nothing, 8th - base of non-perception (the most subtle perception), or maybe what is left after nothingness, Transcending, sphere of nothingness, *9th - cessation of peception and feeling (not in suttas?), composed of 7 Enlightenment Factors (relation to 5 hindrances?) 2 different contexts for 7 enlightenment factors meditative context: sati=mindfulness, dhamma-vicaya=vipassna teaching context: sati=recollection (of the teaching) [1st factor] dhamma-vicaya=investagation (into the teaching), 4. sati (central factor), combating sloth & torpor, 1. dhamma vicaya, 2. viriya, 3. pīti, combating restlessness & worry, 5. passaddhi, 6. samādhi, 7. upekkha, five spiritual faculties, saddha - faith, viriya - vigor/energy, sati - presence of mindfulness, samādhi - composure/non-distractedness, pañña - wisdom (the "thumb" of this "5 fingered hand"), exclusive - (one-pointed) , concentration (ekaggata) -Visuddimagga: ekaggata = one-pointedness (a very fine point to the exclusion of all else, extreme concentration) in the suttas however, ekaggatā is probably most accurately translated as stillness/"still mental state" -perhaps ekaggata means one-place/one-base as in the mind-base-sphere, which unites all the other senses, so experiencing all senses as one, as mind, Vipassana - investigation, discernment, clear-seeing, seeing things as they really are (as developing sampajañña?), Paññā (wisdom) is vipassana (seeing clearly, seeing with eyes of wisdom), The Three Marks of Existence, 1. Impermanence/Change (of all conditioned phenomena), 2. Dukkha/Unsatisfactoriness (of all conditioned phenomena), 3. Not-Self/Insubstantiality (of all conditioned AND unconditioned phenomena), paticca samupaada - dependent origination, mindfulness/meditation subjects, many different subjects, kāyagatāsati, ānaapānasati, satipaṭṭhāna, subjects/themes suitable for different dispositions (from commentarial tradition), Commentaries on Meditation Objects suited for Different Personality Dispositions: Greedy/Lustful: the ten foulness meditations; 32 parts of the body, or, body contemplation. Anger/Hating: the four brahma-viharas; or, the four color kasinas. Deluded: mindfulness of breath. Faithful: the first six recollections. Intelligent: recollection of death (maraṇasati) or peace (); the perception of disgust of food; or, the analysis of the four elements. Speculative: mindfulness of breath. from Sūtra of DhyānaSamādhi: ignorant/delusive type - contemplate causes and conditions, paticca samupāda, nidānas too much thinking - do ānāpānasati (mindfulness of breathing is well-suited to stop thoughts) from MA: self-pride is reduced by contemplating impermanence, unconditionally love your meditation subject, like you would be with someone you love, finding peace in it, Sati - retention on-task presence of awareness, gently upholding and sustaining in the mind, also gently reminding/remembering to return to task "When thoughts go out to various conditions, pull them back gently" (presence of awareness) continuity of awareness in the present, sustaining awareness in the present, mindful awareness of what's happening, two etymological elements: -1.sarati? = memory, to remember -1.? observation (anupassana)? vs many objects, for development of samādhi give attention to one area/field/theme [non-sati is "unconscious" autopilot, forgetfulness] Aśanga: smṛti katamā / saṃsṛte vastuni cetasaḥ asaṃpramoṣo ’vikṣepakarmikā What is mindfulness? It is the non-forgetting [or "not losing"] by the mind of the experienced percept. Its function is non-distraction. paraphrased: Mindfulness is retaining in mind what you have previously experienced without losing it. Its function is to keep attention steady and focused., Sampajañña - situational awareness other words: awareness in daily activities, alertness, awareness, clear comprehension, clear apperception (perception with recognition) comprehension ...has an element of knowing/wisdom  (root ña) [non-sampajañña is unawareness/non-recognition], Atappa - ardency , skillful intention/effort ...on the energy/effort level ('four right efforts') ...more emphasis on the negative/detriment/drawback of unwholesomeness/unskillfulness =4 right efforts, in ultimate philosophical terms: between (AKA not-concerned-with), nihilism/annihilationism, essentialism/eternalism/atman-soul theory

The Central Question/Problem: Dukkha (subtle underlying discontentment, difficulty, stress, unsatisfactoriness, flawedness, suffering, uneasiness, ennui, anguish, dissatisfaction, birth-disease-oldage-death, 5-grasping-aggregates, a burden, that which is difficult to bear)










The Gradual Training (anupubbi-katha)

Dāna (generosity)

Sīla (virtue)

Sagga (benefits (heavens))

Adinava (drawbacks)

Nekhamma (renunciation)

ONLY when the mind is made pure/bright by these practices THEN one should take up the Four Ennobling Tasks

compare gradual training to 10-fold path, 3-fold training, and 4 noble truths

hearing the teaching

gaining faith

going forth

rules of discipline

purifying livelihood


sense restraint

moderate eating


clear comprehension


establishing mindfulness

abandoning hindrances

four jhānas

knowledge & vision

mind-made body

psychic powers

divine ear

reading minds

past lives

divine eye

noble truths