Physiological: Paper 1 Questions

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Physiological: Paper 1 Questions by Mind Map: Physiological: Paper 1 Questions

1. Schachter & Singer (Emotions)

1.1. Physiological Approach

1.1.1. Use Schachter and Singer (emotion) to discuss the physiological approach. [10]

1.2. Context

1.2.1. Identify the two factors from the two-factor theory of emotion. [2]

1.3. Aims

1.4. Sample

1.4.1. All the participants in this study were cleared by the student health service. Give two features of the sample apart from being cleared. [2]

1.4.1.1. Describe why the experimenters had to clear every participant with the student health service. [2]

1.5. Research Methods

1.5.1. Outline one way in which the self report method was used. [2]

1.5.1.1. Describe how the qualitative data were collected by self-report. [2]

1.5.2. Outline one way in which the observation method was used. [2]

1.5.3. From the study by Schachter and Singer (emotion), identify four of the categories used by observers to code the behaviour of the participants in the anger condition. [4]

1.5.4. Identify the two methods used to record the responses of participants. [2]

1.5.4.1. Outline an advantage of one of these methods. [2]

1.5.5. The study by Schachter and Singer (emotion) used a physiological measure to assess the effect of epinephrine: Name this physiological measure and describe how it changed when epinephrine was given to the participants. [2]

1.5.6. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the laboratory experiment using Schachter and Singer’s (emotion) study. [10]

1.5.7. In the study by Schachter and Singer (emotion), the extent to which the participants joined in with the euphoric behaviour of the stooge was measured with an ‘Activity index’. Describe the ‘Activity index’ which reflected the nature of the participants’ behaviour. [2]

1.6. Procedure

1.6.1. How was each factor manipulated in the study? [2]

1.6.2. From the study by Schachter and Singer (emotion), identify four objects used by the stooge in the euphoria condition. [4]

1.6.3. What reasons did the experimenter give the participants for the 20-minute delay in the anger condition after they had been given the injection? [2]

1.6.3.1. What was the real reason for this delay? [2]

1.6.4. Describe what the epinephrine informed group (Epi Inf) were told about the effects of Suproxin. [2]

1.6.5. Describe what the epinephrine misinformed group (Epi Mis) were told about the effects of Suproxin. [2]

1.7. Controls

1.8. Results

1.8.1. Describe how the change in participants given epinephrine differed between the euphoria and anger conditions. [2]

1.8.2. State the difference in the results between the Epi Ign and Epi Inf conditions for the euphoric participants. [2]

1.9. Conclusion

1.10. Ethics

1.10.1. State two ways in which the participants were deceived. [2]

1.10.1.1. Suggest why it was necessary to deceive the participants in this study. [2]

1.11. Evaluation

1.11.1. Evaluate Schachter and Singer (emotion) in terms of two strengths. [10]

1.11.2. Evaluate Schachter and Singer’s (emotion) study in terms of its validity. [10]

1.11.3. Evaluate Schachter and Singer’s (emotion) study in terms of its usefulness/applications. [10]

1.11.4. Use Schachter and Singer (emotion) to evaluate the use of snapshot studies in psychology. [10]

1.11.5. Describe one strength of collecting qualitative data in this study. [2]

2. Maguire (Taxi Drivers)

2.1. Aims

2.1.1. Use Dement and Kleitman (sleep and dreaming) to discuss the physiological approach. [10]

2.1.2. Describe two aims from the study by Maguire et al on taxi drivers. [4]

2.2. Sample

2.2.1. Describe the participants in the sample. [2]

2.2.1.1. To what extent could Maguire et al. generalise from this sample? [2]

2.2.2. What was known about the medical history of the taxi drivers? [2]

2.2.3. Describe one way in which experienced taxi drivers are unusual in their way-finding. [2]

2.2.3.1. Describe one way in which experienced taxi drivers are similar to other people in their way-finding. [2]

2.3. Research Methods

2.3.1. Identify and outline one independent variable from the study. [2]

2.3.2. Identify and outline one dependent variable from the study. [2]

2.3.3. Explain what is meant by a ‘repeated measures design’ using Maguire et al as an example. [2]

2.3.3.1. Outline one advantage of using a repeated measures design. [2]

2.3.4. The study by Maguire et al. (taxi drivers) used positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Outline what a PET scan can discover. [2]

2.3.4.1. Why were magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans also used in the study? [2]

2.3.4.2. Describe the PET scanning technique used in this study. [2]

2.3.4.2.1. Describe one advantage of PET scanning. [2]

2.4. Procedure

2.4.1. State two pieces of information relevant to the experimental tasks collected from the questionnaire. [2]

2.4.2. Describe the sequential non-topographical task. [2]

2.4.2.1. Why was it important to do this task as well as the sequential topographical one? [2]

2.4.3. In the study by Maguire et al. (taxi drivers), PET scans were taken during a baseline task for comparison with the PET scans taken during experimental tasks. Describe the baseline task. [2]

2.4.4. In the study by Maguire et al. (taxi drivers) a control task was compared to a routes task. Outline both of these tasks. [2]

2.5. Controls

2.5.1. State four controls from the study by Maguire et al. (taxi drivers). [4]

2.5.2. Explain how the baseline task acted as a control. [2]

2.6. Ethics

2.6.1. In the study by Maguire et al. (taxi drivers), ethical guidelines were followed. Identify two ethical guidelines and describe how they were followed in the study. [4]

2.7. Results

2.7.1. Identify two brain areas activated in the topographical tasks. [2]

2.7.2. Name two areas of the brain that are activated in the routes task. [2]

2.8. Conclusion

2.8.1. Evidence from the PET scans showed that a network of brain regions which includes the right hippocampus serves two different spatial functions. Outline these two functions. [2]

2.9. Evaluation

2.9.1. Discuss Maguire et al (taxi drivers) in terms of two weaknesses. [10]

2.9.2. Evaluate Maguire et al. (taxi drivers) in terms of its contribution to the debate about reductionism in psychology. [10]

2.9.3. Evaluate the laboratory experiment as a research method using Maguire et al. (taxi drivers) [10]

2.9.4. Evaluate Maguire et al. (taxi drivers) in terms of reliability. [10]

3. Dement & Kleitman (Sleep)

3.1. Physiological Approach

3.2. Context

3.2.1. Identify two features of REM sleep. [2]

3.2.2. Give one difference between REM sleep and NREM sleep. [2]

3.2.3. Describe the EEG patterns associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. [2]

3.2.3.1. What advantage did being able to detect this association reliably give Dement and Kleitman? [2]

3.2.4. Explain why Dement and Kleitman believed that there would be a relationship between dreaming and rapid eye movements before conducting their study. [2]

3.3. Aims

3.3.1. The study by Dement and Kleitman looked at several different relationships between eye movements and dreaming. Describe two of the relationships that were investigated. [4]

3.3.2. Describe one of the aims of the study. [2]

3.3.2.1. What were the results in relation to this aim? [2]

3.4. Sample

3.4.1. Describe two features of the sample. [2]

3.4.2. Explain one disadvantage of this sample. [2]

3.5. Research Methods

3.5.1. Outline how the self report method was used in this study. [2]

3.5.1.1. Describe one problem with self report data in this study. [2]

3.5.2. Describe how eye movements were recorded. [2]

3.5.3. Describe how brain waves were recorded. [2]

3.5.4. From the study by Dement and Kleitman (sleep and dreaming), outline two ways in which observations of the participants were made. [4]

3.5.5. Explain one advantage of using an EEG in this study. [2]

3.6. Procedure

3.6.1. In the study by Dement and Kleitman (sleep and dreaming), participants were awoken by a loud doorbell. Describe what the participants were then expected to do. [2]

3.6.2. Explain why it was important that the doorbell was loud. [2]

3.7. Controls

3.7.1. Outline four controls in this study. [2]

3.7.2. Give two reasons why it is important for studies such as Dement and Kleitman to use controls. [2]

3.8. Results

3.8.1. Describe the data for dream-duration estimates after 5 minutes and 15 minutes of REM. [2]

3.8.2. Describe the dream content of one participant. [2]

3.8.3. Dement and Kleitman measured dream duration and the number of words used in dream narratives. Describe the relationship they were expecting and what they found. [2]

3.8.3.1. Explain the results you have described. [2]

3.9. Conclusion

3.9.1. What did Dement and Kleitman conclude about the relationship between dream content and eye movements? [2]

3.9.2. Describe what Dement and Kleitman discovered about the occurrence of REM periods during the night. [2]

3.9.3. What two types of evidence helped Dement and Kleitman to conclude that there was a relationship between dreaming and rapid eye movements? [2]

3.10. Evaluation

3.10.1. Dement and Kleitman collected data from nights during which the sleepers had been woken. To what extent did they believe these findings were therefore generalisible? [2]

3.10.2. Use Dement and Kleitman (sleep and dreaming) to discuss the benefits of gathering quantitative data. [10]

3.10.3. In the study by Dement and Kleitman (sleep and dreaming) they say that dreaming can be measured objectively and that this has useful applications. Use an example to describe what is meant by ‘an objective measure’. [2]

3.10.3.1. Suggest two useful applications of the objective measurement of dreaming, either ones which Dement and Kleitman suggested or any other useful application. [2]

4. Dematte (Olfactory Cues)

4.1. Context

4.2. Aims

4.3. Sample

4.3.1. Give four features of the sample of participants used in the study by Demattè et al. (smells and facial attractiveness). [4]

4.3.2. In the study by Demattè et al. (smells and facial attractiveness) they give two reasons why they only presented male faces to female participants. Describe these two reasons. [4]

4.4. Research Methods

4.4.1. Why do psychologists use pilot studies? [2]

4.4.2. A within-participants (repeated measures) design was used to test level of attractiveness. Explain why this design was chosen. [2]

4.4.3. The tests of ‘facial attractiveness’ and ‘odour pleasantness’ used the same experimental design. Identify and outline this experimental design. [2]

4.4.3.1. Explain one advantage of this experimental design. [2]

4.4.4. The study by Demattè et al (smells and facial attractiveness) used a repeated measures design. As a consequence of this design they had to use counterbalancing. What is meant by the term ‘counterbalancing’? [2]

4.4.4.1. How were the conditions counterbalanced in this study? [2]

4.4.4.2. Explain why counterbalancing was necessary in this study. [2]

4.4.5. From the study by Demattè et al. (smells and attractiveness), suggest one disadvantage of this design in this study. [2]

4.5. Procedure

4.5.1. What were the four odours used in the study by Demattè et al (smells and facial attractiveness)? [4]

4.5.2. Describe how the odours were delivered to the participants. [2]

4.5.2.1. Explain one advantage of delivering the odours in this way. [2]

4.5.3. Explain how the odours were chosen. [2]

4.5.4. State one pleasant and one unpleasant odour used. [2]

4.5.5. Explain why each smell was diluted differently. [2]

4.5.6. Describe the stimulus materials (the faces). [2]

4.5.7. Prior to the experiment conducted by Demattè et al (smells and facial attractiveness) the participants filled in a confidential questionnaire asking about their senses and general health. Give two examples of the questions asked. [2]

4.5.7.1. Explain why one of these questions was asked. [2]

4.6. Controls

4.6.1. Identify two of the controls used. [2]

4.6.1.1. Why are control measures used in a study?

4.7. Results

4.7.1. In the high and low facial attractiveness conditions, which pleasant odour produced the highest rating of attractiveness? [2]

4.7.2. Describe what is meant by ‘quantitative data’ and give an example from this study. [2]

4.7.2.1. Describe one advantage of quantitative data. [2]

4.8. Conclusion

4.9. Evaluation

4.9.1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the laboratory experiment using Demattè et al’s (smells and faces) study. [10]

4.9.2. Discuss Demattè et al’s study (smells and facial attractiveness) in terms of whether it supports an individual or situational explanation. [10]

4.9.3. Discuss the extent to which generalisations can be made from psychological research using Demattè et al’s (smells and facial attractiveness) study as an example. [10]

4.9.4. Evaluate Demattè et al.’s (smells and facial attractiveness) study in terms of its contribution to the debate about reductionism in psychology. [10]

4.9.5. Evaluate Demattè et al. (smells and facial attractiveness) in terms of reliability. [10]