The Different Types of Student Assessments

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The Different Types of Student Assessments by Mind Map: The Different Types of Student Assessments

1. High-stakes

1.1. Definition

1.1.1. High-stakes assessments are typically standardized tests used for the purposes of accountability—i.e., any attempt by federal, state, or local government agencies to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers. In general, “high stakes” means that important decisions about students, teachers, schools, or districts are based on the scores students achieve on a high-stakes test, and either punishments (sanctions, penalties, reduced funding, negative publicity, not being promoted to the next grade, not being allowed to graduate) or accolades (awards, public celebration, positive publicity, bonuses, grade promotion, diplomas) result from those scores.

1.2. Example

1.2.1. End of Course Tests, Graduation Tests, (anything that could keep a student from being promoted to the next grade/graduate and/or put a teacher's job at risk).

1.3. Advantages

1.3.1. I am personally not a fan, but I suppose the advantage is that it gives teachers, students, administration, and the higher ups a comprehensive view and understanding of how much students have learned throughout a particular course and how well that course was taught by the teacher.

1.4. Disadvantages

1.4.1. Teachers focus mainly on test preparation and a narrow range of knowledge at the expense of other important skills, or increased incentives to cheat and manipulate test results.

2. Authentic

2.1. Definition

2.1.1. Authentic assessment utilizes performance samples – learning activities that encourage students to use higher-order thinking skills. Many teachers find that authentic assessment is most successful when students know what teachers expect. For this reason, teachers should always clearly define standards and expectations. Educators often use rubrics, or established sets of criteria, to assess student work.

2.2. Example

2.2.1. Types of authentic assessment take many forms, all of which involve higher order levels of thinking. They are often task-based and analytical. For example, History teachers may assign groups to plan the founding of a moon colony, analyzing what would be necessary to make it succeed. A Venn diagram comparing the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution is a simple way to determine how well students truly understand the documents, while writing help wanted ads for members of the branches of government allow assessment of both government concepts and writing skills. Geography students can show what they know by creating travel brochures for the regions, states, or countries the class is studying. Older students can show their understanding of both significant court cases and the judicial process by holding mock court to “argue” the Marbury vs. Madison or Brown vs. Board of Education cases.

2.3. Advantages

2.3.1. Because authentic assessment emphasizes process and performance, it encourages students to practice critical-thinking skills and to get excited about the things they are learning.

2.4. Disadvantages

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3. Self-assessment

3.1. Definition

3.1.1. Self-assessments allow for students and teachers to gauge the student's understanding and is to simply to ask students to rate their learning and/or understanding of a topic, either by open-response or multiple choice.

3.2. Example

3.2.1. Students can use a numerical scale, a thumbs up or down, or even smiley faces to show how confident they feel about their understanding of a topic.

3.3. Advantages

3.3.1. Allows students to gauge their own learning of the material (which areas they believe they are strong or weak in) and take ownership of their efforts towards that learning.

3.4. Disadvantages

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4. Peer-assessment

4.1. Definition

4.1.1. Peer assessment involves students taking responsibility for assessing the work of their peers against set assessment criteria. They can therefore be engaged in providing feedback to their peers (sometimes referred to as peer review), summative grades (moderated by you or your colleagues), or a combination of the two.

4.2. Example

4.2.1. Peer assessment can potentially be used in any context, for example to assess posters, reports, oral presentations, essays and performances produced as either individual or group work. In order to use peer assessment in a given situation, you'll need to clearly define and shape the assessment criteria with your students.

4.3. Advantages

4.3.1. Peer assessments provide a powerful way for your students to act as the 'assessor' and to gain an opportunity to better understand assessment criteria It can also transfer some ownership of the assessment process to them, thereby potentially increasing their motivation and engagement. In doing so, your students might be encouraged to learn more deeply, building up their understanding, rather than just their knowledge of the facts, as well as gaining an insight into their own approach to an assessment task in comparison to their peers.

4.4. Disadvantages

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5. Portfolio

5.1. Definition

5.1.1. Portfolio-based assessments are collections of academic work—assignments, lab results, writing samples, speeches, art projects, websites, etc.—that are compiled by students and assessed by teachers in consistent ways. Portfolio-based assessments are often used to evaluate a “body of knowledge”—i.e., the acquisition of diverse knowledge and skills over a period of time. Portfolio materials can be collected in physical or digital formats, and they are often evaluated to determine whether students have met required learning standards.

5.2. Example

5.2.1. Journal entries, reflective writing, artwork, diagrams, charts and graphs, group reports, student notes and outlines, rough drafts and polished writing

5.3. Advantages

5.3.1. Portfolios allow students to collect evidence of their learning throughout the unit, quarter, semester, or year, rather than being judged on a number from a test taken one time.

5.4. Disadvantages

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6. Diagnostic

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. are administered before students begin a lesson, unit, course, or academic program. Students are not necessarily expected to know most, or even any, of the material evaluated by pre-assessments—they are generally used to establish a baseline against which educators measure learning progress over the duration of a program, course, or instructional period.

6.2. Example

6.2.1. Confidence Indication: On a traditional pen and paper test, include a way for students to indicate how confident they are in their answers. Letting students self-report can tell teachers a lot about a student’s prior knowledge of the material.

6.3. Advantages

6.3.1. Many teachers use the same diagnostic assessment as a formative or summative assessment later into the unit to compare a student’s score at the beginning, middle, and end of instruction. Diagnostic assessment lets teachers pinpoint a student’s preconceptions of a topic, helping teacher’s anchor further instruction on what students have already mastered.

6.4. Disadvantages

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7. Formative

7.1. Definition

7.1.1. Formative assessments are in-process evaluations of student learning that are typically administered multiple times during a unit, course, or academic program. The general purpose of formative assessment is to give educators real-time feedback about what students are learning or not learning so that instructional approaches, teaching materials, and academic support can be modified accordingly. Formative assessments are usually not graded.

7.2. Example

7.2.1. Formative assessments may take a variety of forms, from more formal quizzes and assignments to informal questioning techniques and discussions with students.

7.3. Advantages

7.3.1. Gives teachers a regular and consistent means of gauging how much their students know throughout each lesson. Another advantage is the wide range of formative assessments teachers have to choose from and use.

7.4. Disadvantages

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8. Summative

8.1. Definition

8.1.1. Summative assessments are used to evaluate student learning at the conclusion of a specific instructional period—typically at the end of a unit, course, semester, program, or school year. Summative assessments are graded tests, assignments, or projects that are used to determine whether students have learned what they were expected to learn during the defined instructional period.

8.2. Example

8.2.1. Summative assessment scores are usually recorded and factored into student academic record in the form of letter grades and scores from tests like Unit tests and Midterm and Benchmark exams, as well as the SAT or ACT.

8.3. Advantages

8.3.1. Gives teachers a comprehensive view and understanding of how much their students have learned throughout a particular unit.

8.4. Disadvantages

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9. Performance-based

9.1. Definition

9.1.1. Performance-based assessments typically require students to complete a complex task, such as a writing assignment, science experiment, speech, presentation, performance, or long-term project, for example. Educators will often use collaboratively developed common assessments, scoring guides, rubrics, and other methods to evaluate whether the work produced by students shows that they have learned what they were expected to learn. Performance assessments may also be called “authentic assessments,” since they are considered by some educators to be more accurate and meaningful evaluations of learning achievement than traditional tests.

9.2. Example

9.2.1. Writing, revising, and presenting a report to the class Conducting a week-long social studies newspaper project Working with a team to prepare a position in a classroom debate

9.3. Advantages

9.3.1. Performance-based allow students to synthesize many concepts into one product or process. They require students to address real world issues and put their learning to use to solve or demonstrate multiple related skills.

9.4. Disadvantages

9.4.1. Performance assessments usually include fewer questions and call for a greater degree of subjective judgement than traditional testing methods. Since there are no clear right and wrong answers, teachers have to decide how to grade and what distinguishes an average performance from an excellent one. This potential disadvantage can be avoided if teachers set up an evaluation rubric (rating scale with several categories) that clearly defines the characteristics of poor, average, and excellent performances so teachers can score them in a consistent manner. Critics argue that performance assessments will not improve schooling and could be harmful. The following concerns have been expressed about performance-based assessments: teachers might teach only to the test, thereby narrowing the curriculum and reducing the test's value. When using performance assessments such as portfolios, teachers and other individuals who are grading the work may differ greatly in their evaluations. Students may be unintentionally penalized for such things as having a disability, being from a certain cultural background, or attending classes at a school with limited resources.

10. Citations