Laughter Out Of Place

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Laughter Out Of Place by Mind Map: Laughter Out Of Place

1. Chapter 2: The Aesthetics of Domination

1.1. Class, Culture, and the Lives of Domestic Workers

1.1.1. Gloria and her daughter Soneca

1.1.1.1. Moved out with young children still at home with her lover.

1.1.1.2. Laughed at Beth's tears shed for her adult daughter not being at home.

1.2. The Struggle to Earn A Living Wage

1.2.1. Most workers only earn one minimum salary, Beth offered Gloria five minimum salaries per month for 6 day work weeks.

1.2.2. The large salary meant for a huge life change for Gloria and her family.

1.3. Poverty in Brazil and Rio De Janeiro

1.3.1. Rio is the country's second largest city and its second most important port.

1.3.2. Feminiaztion is one of most dramatic effects on Rio's work force.

1.4. Class, Culture, and The Effects of Domination

1.5. From Slavery to Servitude

1.5.1. Gloria recalled spending part of her childhood, working as a servant on a large farm.

1.5.2. One of her earliest memories is of herself cooking.

1.5.3. One of the biggest complaints was not being able to eat the same food they cooked.

1.6. Colonial Rio De Janeiro

1.6.1. The history of this place is connected to the lives of slaves, ex-slaves, and domestic works since the colonial period.

1.6.2. Even after the legal abolition of slavery domestic servants were still expected to provide sexual favors to the masters and their sons and nutritional needs to their children such being "milk nannies".

1.7. Para Ingles Ver, or For The English to See

1.7.1. Race tensions

1.7.2. "The Masters and The Slaves"

1.8. Private and Public Spaces

1.9. Ambiguous Affections

1.9.1. Gloria's close relationship with Dona Beth extended in specific ways to her daughter Soneca.

1.9.2. Soneca's pregnancy: her mother was against it and had little to no support from the baby's father.

1.9.3. Soneca was supposed to get further education.

1.10. The Euphemization of Power Relations

1.10.1. The protection of class privilege is highly visible in everyday interactions inside and outside.

1.11. A Game of Signs:Cultural Capital and The Reproduction of Class

1.11.1. Cida was able to attend night school.

1.11.2. She went to through secondary school twice.

1.11.3. Cida knows that "handwritting" can tell exactly where you come immediately.

1.12. The Limitations of Academic Capital

1.12.1. The lines are even more definitive in regards to education.

1.12.1.1. Even more than the United States.

1.13. The Laughter of The Community

2. Chapter 3: Color-Blind Democracies, Black Consciousness Politics, and the Black Cinderellas of Felicidade Eterna

2.1. Race and Class in Brazil and The United States

2.1.1. Brazil is only considered "different" when compared to the United States.

2.2. Ana Flavia Pecanha Azeredo: A Black Cinderella?

2.2.1. She was a black woman who was physically assaulted after delaying an elevator in a middle class apartment building.

2.3. The Treasure Chest Coup:Female Fantasies of Seducing The Coroa

2.3.1. Living in a favela is automatically a class maker.

2.3.2. People who have lighter skin or whiter skin are said to have better life chances.

2.4. Representations and Com-modifications of Black Bodies

2.4.1. Black sexuality as something exotic

2.5. Brazilian Sexuality: History, Representation, and Scholarship

2.5.1. "Erotic Paradise"

2.5.2. The Celebration of Brazilian Sexuality mulata

2.5.3. Mulata

2.5.3.1. was represented as having emerged out of the black African Slave culture.

2.6. Discourses (And Silences) On Race

2.6.1. Research shows that people prefer to remain silent about race and sexuality or resort to jokes and laughter.

2.7. Hierarchies of Beauty and Social Mobility

2.7.1. Being a mixed race or black female is not sufficient for being considered a hot mulata.

2.8. The Coroa and The Ideology of Whitening

2.8.1. Afro-Brazilians' feel inferior and ugly in a world of whiteness,

2.8.2. The other half of them feel sexy and erotic

2.9. Conclusions: Black Cinderella and Black Consciousness Politics

2.9.1. The construction of race in Brazil has been influenced by the idea of racial democracy.

3. Chapter 4: No Time For Childhood

3.1. A Visit with Pedro Paulo At Ilha Grande Prison

3.1.1. Pedro was in prison serving a 15 year sentence.

3.1.2. Pedro threatened if she aborted his child the first thing he would do when he got out of prison would be t o kill her.

3.2. The Killing Streets

3.2.1. "Gunmen in police uniforms kill 7 street children in Brazil".

3.3. Home Children, Street Children, And Industrialized Children

3.3.1. Street children is a major issue.

3.3.2. The street is a place of danger and excitement.

3.3.2.1. The poor rob the rich, women flirt with men and the young deviate from their parents.

3.4. Mirelli's Story

3.4.1. Mirelli is Gloria's favorite goddaughter and cousin.

3.4.2. Mirelli's father "lost" her mother in a card game.

3.4.3. Both of her parents were alcoholics.

3.5. Lucas's Story

3.5.1. Lucas's mother died

3.5.2. Lucas came from an extremely impoverished situation.

3.6. The Everyday Life of Children

3.6.1. Gloria was very "strict" some even considered her abusive.

3.7. Throwing Out Onto The Street

3.7.1. Gloria threw out her daughter at the age of 15 onto the streets.

3.7.2. Gloria's older daughter was deceased after Gloria threw her out because she caught her sending love notes to someone Gloria was dating.

3.8. Eating Shit In A Favela

3.9. The "Protection" Of The Children

3.9.1. Gloria's children felt that she had mellowed out because the chief and gang leader of favela made it known that there would be no child beating in that territory.

3.10. Childhood, Oppositional Culture, and The Idea of Resistance

3.10.1. "Honest Work"

3.11. Youth Culture and Resistance: Some Conculsions

3.11.1. "Being cruel in order to be kind".

4. Chapter 5: State Terror, Gangs and Everyday Violence in Rio De Janeiro

4.1. Crime and Violence in Rio De Janeiro

4.1.1. One of the most unequal cities in the world.

4.1.2. The middle and upper class have no real idea of the crime and violence surrounding the poorest.

4.2. The Local gang and Its Leader

4.3. An Overview of Gangs

4.3.1. Gangs have a huge significance.

4.4. Drug Trafficking Gangs in The Rio Context

4.4.1. Drug trafficking gangs have large amounts of control but legal and political.

4.5. A Chronology of Police-Bandit Relations: Lulu and Ivo

4.5.1. Ivo, is considered one of the founding fathers of favela.

4.6. A New Dono

4.6.1. Breno is the principal planner behind Dilmar's murder.

4.6.2. He went into self imposed exile and later went to jail.

4.7. Bandits, Police, "Police-Bandits"

4.7.1. The term 'police-bandit" captures the sentiment that what is taken for ranted about police is their absolute corruption.

4.8. Revenge Practices

4.8.1. Violence and murder is a normal occurrence.

4.9. The Solution of "Private" Matters

4.9.1. Brazilian authorities are uninvolved in addressing all of the issues people are facing.

4.10. A Case of Adultery

4.10.1. Gloria's neighbor Adriana was having an affair with a younger man.

4.11. Gun Control

4.11.1. After Breno's short and impetuous rule, a nonlocal gang invaded.

4.12. A Case of "Petty Theft"

4.12.1. Isadora was thankful her son was only beaten and not killed for stealing.

4.13. Solution for an Abusive and Adulterous Husband

4.13.1. He was threatened with his life and stopped.

4.14. Rape of A Child

4.14.1. Street Justice

4.15. Women, Oppositional Culture, And Religious Conversion

4.15.1. Local gangs provide rule in "brown areas".

5. Chapter 6: Partial Truths, or the Carnivalization of Desire

5.1. Sexuality In The Context Of Local Culture

5.1.1. Somethings are said and some things are left unsaid when it comes to sexuality.

5.2. Discourses Of Sex-Positiveness

5.2.1. The importance of sexuality to Carioca identity.

5.3. The Carnivalization Of Desire

5.3.1. A deep exploration of humor in the form of sexuality

5.4. Ethnography: Local Sexual Culture In Felicidade Eterna

5.4.1. Sexual/Eating Metaphors, Subversion, and Creative Resistance.

5.4.1.1. "Eating" metaphors lead to the nature of gendered sexual power relations where men are eaters and women are to be eaten.

5.5. From Boys to Men: Normative Masculinization and Heterosexuality

5.5.1. Class specific regimes of sexuality do exist

5.5.2. Among the working class Cariocas, it is considered unhealthy for men to go without sex.

5.6. Sacanagem, transgression, and Female Boundary-setting

5.6.1. Sacanagem is an important organizing concept in the realm of Brazilian sexuality

5.7. A Joke that Even Gloria Did Not Find Funny.

5.8. Partial Truths

5.8.1. Epidemic of child sexual abuse

6. Chapter 7: What's So Funny About Rape?

6.1. An Evening of Terror In Duque De Caxias

6.2. Soneca's Version Of The Story

6.3. Battling Mothers and Daughters

6.3.1. Consistent competition

6.4. A Note on The Legal Universe and Rape

6.4.1. A show of laughter through tears

6.4.2. "Defense of Honor"

6.5. Black Humor as The Only Response

6.5.1. Humor is not a neutral concept

6.6. Conclusions

6.6.1. "Laughter Out of Place" provides a unique window into impoverished working women's world.