Developmental Approach: Paper 1 Questions

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1. Langlois (Attractiveness)

1.1. Aim

1.1.1. Langlois et al (infant facial preference) suggested three reasons why study 1 was done. Explain two of these reasons. [4]

1.2. Sample

1.2.1. Describe two features of the sample in study 1 from Langlois et al (infant facial preference) [2]

1.3. Research Methods

1.3.1. Study 2 of Langlois et al compared infants’ preferences for attractive and unattractive black women’s faces. Pairs of photographs were presented twice. On the second presentation the left-right position was reversed. Why was this necessary? [2]

1.4. Procedure

1.4.1. From the study by Langlois et al (infant facial preference): Outline two features of the slides used in study 1 to test preferences for adult faces. [2]

1.4.1.1. Suggest why they used slides rather than real people. [2]

1.4.2. From the study by Langlois et al (infant facial preference): In study 1, explain how the parents were prevented from seeing the facial stimuli. [2]

1.4.2.1. Explain why this was necessary. [2]

1.4.3. Langlois et al. investigated infant facial preference. Describe four features of the stimuli used in study 1. [4]

1.4.4. Of the 110 infant participants in the study by Langlois et al. (infant facial preference), 50 were eliminated for various reasons including ‘fussing’. State two other reasons for which infants were eliminated. [2]

1.4.4.1. Not using ‘fussy’ babies was helpful to the experimenters but could also have been a disadvantage in terms of interpreting the results. Explain why. [2]

1.4.5. How did the procedure attempt to reduce fatigue in the infants? [2]

1.4.6. How did Langlois et al. control for side bias in the presentation of the faces? [2]

1.4.7. Describe the stimuli in study 3 and explain how they differed from those in studies 1 and 2. [2]

1.5. Findings

1.5.1. Name two types of faces that babies looked at for a long time. [2]

1.5.2. From the study by Langlois et al (infant facial preference), describe two findings from study 1. [4]

1.5.3. Describe two findings from Langlois et al (infant facial preference). [4]

1.6. Conclusions

1.6.1. What two explanations did Langlois, Ritter, Roggman and Vaughn give for their findings? [2]

1.6.2. What was concluded from study 2? [2]

1.6.3. What were the conclusions of study 3? [2]

1.6.4. In the conclusion of the study by Langlois et al. (infant facial preference), two reasons are suggested to explain why infants prefer attractive faces. Describe both of these reasons. [4]

1.7. Evaluation

1.7.1. Discuss the use of children in psychological research using Langlois et al.'s study (infant facial preference) as an example. [10]

1.7.2. Use Langlois et al's study (infant facial preference) to discuss the benefits of gathering quantitative data. [10]

1.7.3. Discuss the relative strengths of using animals versus human participants to investigate development. Use Langlois et al. (infant facial preference) as an example. [10]

1.7.4. Evaluate Langlois et al's study (infant facial preference) in terms of its contribution to the nature-nurture debate. [10]

1.7.5. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the developmental approach to psychology using Langlois et al.'s study (infant facial preference) [10]

1.7.6. Use Langlois et al.'s study (infant facial preference) to discuss ethics in psychology. [10]

2. Bandura (Aggression)

2.1. Context

2.1.1. How is ‘imitative learning’ different from the effect of the presence of a model on immediate behaviour? [2]

2.1.2. From the study by Bandura et al. (aggression): Explain why they expected to find a sex difference in the behaviour of the children. [2]

2.1.2.1. Describe one piece of qualitative data which supports this expectation. [2]

2.2. Aims

2.3. Sample

2.4. Research Methods

2.4.1. The study by Bandura et al on aggression involved observation. Outline two strengths of the way in which the observation was conducted. [4]

2.4.2. The study by Bandura et al (aggression) was an experiment. What is meant by an ‘experiment’. [2]

2.4.3. Identify and outline the experimental design used. [2]

2.4.4. The study by Bandura et al. (aggression) used a matched pairs design. What is meant by a ‘matched pairs design’? [2]

2.4.4.1. Describe one advantage of using a matched pairs design in this study. [2]

2.5. Procedure

2.5.1. How did Bandura et al. show that imitative learning involves the generalisation of responses when the model is absent? [2]

2.5.2. In the study by Bandura et al. (aggression), most results were obtained by observation. Give an example of one behaviour that was recorded as ‘imitative aggression’ and one behaviour that was recorded as ‘non-imitative aggression’. [2]

2.5.3. In the study by Bandura et al. (aggression) the data were collected by observation. In the preliminary rating of aggressive behaviour, who were the observers? [2]

2.5.4. In the experimental part of the study, where were the observers and why was this important? [2]

2.6. Findings

2.6.1. Describe two findings from the study by Bandura et al on the imitation of aggression. [4]

2.6.2. In their study of aggression, Bandura et al found several differences in behaviour between groups of participants. Outline one difference in behaviour between male and female participants. [2]

2.6.2.1. Suggest one reason for this difference. [2]

2.6.3. Describe the results for ‘imitative aggression’. [2]

2.7. Conclusions

2.8. Evaluation

2.8.1. Discuss Bandura et al (aggression) in terms of two weaknesses. [10]

2.8.2. Describe two ethical issues raised in the study by Bandura et al on the imitation of aggression. [4]

2.8.3. Discuss the use of children in psychological research using Bandura as an example. [10]

2.8.4. Discuss the relative strengths of using animals versus human participants to investigate development. Use Bandura et al. (aggression) as an example. [10]

2.8.5. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of observations as a research method using Bandura et al's study (aggression) as an example. [10]

2.8.6. Evaluate Bandura et al's study (aggression) in terms of its contribution to the nature-nurture debate. [10]

2.8.7. Use Bandura et al.'s study (aggression) discuss the advantages and disadvantages of collecting qualitative data. [10]

2.8.8. Use Bandura et al.'s study (aggression) to evaluate the use of snapshot studies in psychology. [10]

2.8.9. Evaluate Bandura et al.'s study (aggression) in terms of its contribution to the debate about reductionism. [10]

3. Nelson (Children's Morals)

3.1. Context

3.1.1. Explain why Nelson was interested in children’s understanding of both motives and outcomes. [2]

3.2. Aim

3.2.1. Describe two factors affecting children’s moral judgments that were investigated by Nelson. [4]

3.3. Sample

3.3.1. Describe two features of the sample used in study 1. [2]

3.3.2. Describe the sample used in Study 1 by Nelson (children’s morals). [4]

3.4. Research Methods

3.4.1. Describe how the children were assigned to one of the three story-presentation conditions. [2]

3.4.2. The study by Nelson on children’s morals was an experiment. One independent variable was ‘motive’. Explain the two levels of the ‘motive’ variable. [4]

3.4.3. From the study by Nelson on children’s morals: Describe the scale used by Nelson to measure judgments of the ‘goodness’ of actions in the stories. [2]

3.4.3.1. Explain one advantage of using this type of scale. [2]

3.4.4. In study by Nelson on moral judgments, children of different ages were compared using an independent groups design. What were the two ages being compared? [2]

3.4.4.1. Outline one disadvantage of an independent groups design. [2]

3.4.5. Name the research method used in the studies by Nelson and justify your answer. [2]

3.4.6. Describe the practice trials the children had before the main study. [2]

3.4.7. Nelson investigated children’s morals using an experiment. Alternatively, she could have used the case study method. Describe how an experiment and a case study are different. [2]

3.4.7.1. Explain why it was better to use an experiment in this study. [2]

3.4.8. Using Study 2 as an example, explain the experimental design. [2]

3.5. Procedure

3.5.1. From the study by Nelson (children’s morals): Describe the pictures in the motive-implicit condition. [2]

3.5.1.1. Explain what was different about the pictures in the motive-explicit condition. [2]

3.5.2. How did Nelson follow the ethical guideline of obtaining consent? [2]

3.5.2.1. Why is this guideline important? [2]

3.5.3. In the study by Nelson (children’s morals) a story about a boy throwing a ball was chosen. Explain how and why this story was chosen. [2]

3.5.3.1. Describe the difference between the good and bad motive stories. [2]

3.5.4. Nelson investigated children’s morals and found, in study 1, that the youngest children were affected by motive valence (whether the motive cue was good or bad). What did Nelson do in Study 2 to investigate whether motive valence was really most important and what did she expect would happen? [2]

3.6. Findings

3.6.1. From the study by Nelson on morals, describe two ways in which the responses of the 3-year-old and the 7-year-old children differed. [4]

3.7. Conclusions

3.7.1. Describe two conclusions from the study by Nelson (children’s morals). [4]

3.8. Evaluation

3.8.1. Evaluate Nelson' study (children’s morals) in terms of one strength and one weakness. [10]

3.8.2. Discuss the use of children in psychological research using Nelson's study (children’s morals) as an example.[10]

3.8.3. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the developmental approach to psychology using Nelson's study (children's morals) [10]

3.8.4. Evaluate the laboratory experiment as a research method using Nelson's study (children’s morals) [10]

4. Freud (Oedipus Complex)

4.1. Context

4.1.1. In the study by Freud, little Hans is referred to as ‘a little Oedipus’. Briefly outline the Oedipus complex. [2]

4.1.2. In the study of little Hans, Freud refers to his ‘libido’. What did Freud mean by ‘libido’? [2]

4.2. Aim

4.3. Sample

4.4. Research Methods

4.4.1. Give two features of this investigation that make it a case study. [2]

4.4.1.1. Give one disadvantage of the case study method as used in this investigation. [2]

4.4.2. Freud is often criticised for the methods he used to collect evidence for his theories. Give one weakness of Freud’s methods from his study of little Hans. [2]

4.4.3. Outline the self report method as used in this study. [2]

4.4.3.1. Describe one advantage of the self report method. [2]

4.5. Procedure

4.5.1. In the study by Freud, little Hans is asked ‘When the horse fell down did you think of your daddy?’ Give one problem with this type of questioning. [2]

4.5.2. From the study by Freud (little Hans): Describe the role of little Hans’s father in the study. [2]

4.5.2.1. Suggest one problem with this role. [2]

4.6. Findings

4.6.1. From the study by Freud, give two pieces of evidence that suggest that little Hans was in the Oedipus Complex. [4]

4.6.2. Describe one piece of evidence from the study which suggests that Hans is ‘a little Oedipus’. [2]

4.6.3. In the study by Freud he describes little Hans’s ‘grandaddy’ fantasy about Hans having his own children. Describe this fantasy. [2]

4.6.3.1. Explain how Freud related this fantasy to the resolution of the Oedipus complex. [2]

4.6.4. Describe one of the dreams that little Hans had. [2]

4.6.4.1. Explain how Freud related this dream to the Oedipus complex. [2]

4.7. Conclusions

4.7.1. How did Freud interpret Hans’ fear of horses? [2]

4.7.2. (Explain what Freud thought happened to Hans’s libido during the course of the case study. [2]

4.8. Evaluation

4.8.1. Give one strength of Freud’s methods from his study of little Hans. [2]

4.8.2. Freud says in his study of little Hans that his approach does not have any scientific value. Outline two criticisms that can be made about the scientific value of Freud’s work. [4]

4.8.3. Evaluate Freud's study (little Hans) in terms of its reliability. [10]

4.8.4. Discuss the use of qualitative data in psychology using Freud's study (little Hans) an example. [10]

4.8.5. Evaluate the use of longitudinal studies using Freud's study (little Hans). [10]

4.8.6. Use Freud's study (little Hans) to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the individual differences approach to psychology. [10]