Laughter Out of Place: Chapters 4 & 5

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Laughter Out of Place: Chapters 4 & 5 by Mind Map: Laughter Out of Place: Chapters 4 & 5

1. Pedro: Male dominance; incarcerated.

2. Gloria: Honest Work

2.1. Slaves Wages

3. Laughter & Tears

3.1. Gloria sheds no tears over Pedro's death; she was done shedding tears for him. While her son's father, who had nothing to do with him, nothing to dow tih raising him, weeped for his loss.

4. Strip search to enter the prison; all rights removed.

5. Gloria had a first child when she was still a child

6. Gloria had no childhood; raised with slave ideals, had a live-in lover by the time she was a young teen.

7. Her eldest child, Pedro, upon meeting Donna Goldstein in prison, actually believed for a moment that she could be Gloria's "white daughter."

8. Amelia, the crente

8.1. Religious martyr, made herself (possibly, emotionally/ sexually) available to Adhmar.

9. Paulo: ahead of his peers. highly intelligent, politically aware. Educated on poverty

9.1. Bad events, while not happy or funny, are later going to become fodder.

10. The gang: Red Command: Family Values

10.1. Though Pedro is in prison, long term, for robbery. Values?

11. Gloria, even amongst the two boys in prison, was considered the queen bee.

11.1. Gloria was obviously not someone to be crossed.

12. Pedro returned to gang life upon release from prison.

12.1. Taught his child about guns.

13. Pedro: assumed fatherly responsibilities.

13.1. Josilene did not abort the child, and he did what he said he woulf do, and took care fo the child.

14. Gloria blamed herself for her son, Pedro Paulo's downfall.

14.1. She was so busy working to take care of him financially, she left him to the streets

15. Gang Life: Seen as the only way out of poverty, only way to avoid working as a slave

16. Gang Life: Male Dominance

17. Child-Centeredness of the Middle & Upperclasses

18. Mirelli: Prisoner of CHildhood

18.1. Broken childhood. Alcoholic Parents. Stray parents. Eating out of the garbage for meals. Incarcerated in detention centers. Started having kids by 14.

19. Gloria: Patron Saint of Felicidade Eterna

20. Girl children: da rua

20.1. Of the street. Presumably loose; accustomed to sexual advances from others. Permanently in a predicament to be taken advantage of.

21. Pedro Paulo: Anti-Abortion Irony

21.1. Believed his "woman" should be killed if she had an abortion, because it was murder on his child. Same man who ended up dead, not raising this child, or providing for this child due to his love of the gang-life.

22. Increasing violence over the years

23. Gangs: Necessary Evil

23.1. Violent but also peace-keeping. Like a local police force for every favela. Hero vs. vilain.

24. Drug Trafficking: Economic Importance

24.1. Elite & Middle Class people are the ones buying the drugs, reinforcing their economic prowess. Therefore, the elite and middle class are the ones perpetuating this gang activity.

25. Gangs: No Opportunity

25.1. The guys involved, if they had other legit options for building lives, they would not be doing this. Little opportunity means little ability to advance.

26. Guns: Symbol of Masculinity

26.1. Joining a gang meant one got a gun.

27. Police

27.1. Not very favorable to the people of the favela. The police are feared, very brutal to the poor.

28. Gang as Medium

28.1. Serving as an in-between for the people of the favela and the police.

29. Abortion: Only mention of birth control.

29.1. Controversial. Male control.

30. Religion

30.1. People are looking to be saved. Clinging to anything as a safety net.

31. Childhood:

31.1. Not when you're poor. However, completely opposite situation for the middle/ upper classes, where children reign supreme.

31.2. Family Values

31.2.1. Utterly Broken

32. Abortion is the only mention of any birth control.

32.1. Favelas are way overpopulated, and birth control would be useful. How evil, or like murder is abortion if these children are not going to be cared for, and if they are going to grow up to lives of crime, that leave them susceptible to murder down the road? Waste of resources.

33. Marriage

33.1. Odd concept. Marriages do not work. They are bound to fail. Nearly every marriage mentioned fails.

34. Family Values

34.1. Skewered upon these broken families.

35. Families among the poor are completely distorted.

36. Violence

36.1. Entirely abundant. Constant fear. Local terrorism on many levels: gangs, bandits, police.

37. Murder

37.1. Extremely high murder rate in favelas.

38. Culture of Indifferent Widows

38.1. 2 of Gloria's daughters were widows very young.

39. Color/ Class

39.1. Color dictates class. Class dictates how one lives. Which dictates fate.

40. Women: Lesser

40.1. Viewed as lower entities, sexual subserviants in a male dominated culture