Kinds of Assessment

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Kinds of Assessment by Mind Map: Kinds of Assessment

1. Peer Asessment: Having students assess each other.

1.1. Purpose of Assessment: Purposes are multiple, but the reason this is different than any kind of teacher assessment is that many times students care more and learn more from assessment and feedback given by peers.

1.2. Advantages: Students see the schoolwork from both a student and a teacher's perspective. Being the assessor can reinforce learning.

1.3. Disadvantages: Students probably have not mastered the content themselves, so they cannot always give accurate or useful feedback.

1.4. Could be either Assessment OF Learning or Assessment FOR Learning depending on how it is done.

1.5. Example: In the highest level of student involvement: 1. Students and instructors work together to prepare model answers and scoring guidelines. 2. Students then use the negotiated guidelines to assess the work of peers. 3. Students are then responsible for providing feedback to the other students.

1.6. Citations: Peer Assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved June 24, 2015, from

2. Authentic: Focuses on skills and abilities by assessing students as they do tasks that mimic the target content.

2.1. Purpose of Assessment: To make a more realistic test that can judge whether students can apply the knowledge that they are supposed to be learning.

2.2. Advantages: Students demonstrate target skills in a context closer to that in which they will actually use the skills in the future.

2.3. Disadvantages: Difficulty in creating a scoring structure that is clear and fair. Much of what is being evaluated may be very subjective.

2.4. Could be either Assessment OF Learning or Assessment FOR Learning depending on how it is done.

2.5. Example: In a history class recently the students studying Medieval times held a feast and jousting competition. The food was all recipes that were as authentic to the times as possible. There were also students assigned to be entertainers, lords, ladies and so on.

2.6. Citations Ten Takeaway Tips for Using Authentic Assessment in Your School. (2011, January 14). Retrieved June 24, 2015, from

3. Self Assessment: Assessing one's own work.

3.1. Purpose of Assessment: According to a paper on the University of Sydney website: "The main aims of self and peer assessment are to: • increase student responsibility and autonomy • strive for a more advanced and deeper understanding of the subject matter, skills and processes • lift the role and status of the student from passive learner to active leaner and assessor (this also encourages a deeper approach to learning) • involve students in critical reflection • develop in students a better understanding of their own subjectivity and judgement." PDF at:

3.2. Advantages: Helps students to develop the skill of evaluating their own work which is important in work and life in general Students are directly involved and thus have responsibility Students can generally take the test many times, potentially learning from the test itself.

3.3. Disadvantages: Students may not be able to accurately assess themselves. This is especially true if they are not given clear guidelines.

3.4. Could be either Assessment OF Learning or Assessment FOR Learning depending on how it is done. In fact, it might be more of a reflection (see example), and not serve either of the above purposes very well.

3.5. Example: At the school I work in, students are required to assess themselves at the end of each semester. This is more of a reflection on the past semester. The guiding questions help the students to reflect on which of our "five stars" they performed well on. These include things like being a good communicator, being a risk-taker etc. Students are asked to give specific details to back up their claims.

3.6. Citations: (n.d.). Retrieved June 24, 2015, from Assessment Matters. (n.d.). Retrieved June 24, 2015, from

4. Portfolio: A collection of a student's work that displays what they have learned.

4.1. Purpose of Assessment: Show what a student has achieved through learning. This can be shown like a resume to universities, potential employers etc.

4.2. Advantages: The portfolio paints a much richer picture of what a student has learned. Also, since it is based on work that the student has done, the student is more likely to have gained skills along with knowledge of the subject area.

4.3. Disadvantages: It takes a lot of time, organization and energy.

4.4. Portfolio Assessment could be Assessment OF Learning or Assessment FOR Learning, depending on how and when one looks at it.

4.5. Example: Students in the Edutopia video in the required readings were making their own portfolios based on projects that they did in class. (Comprehensive Assessment, 2010)

4.6. Citations: Comprehensive Assessment: An Overview. (2010, August 3). Retrieved June 24, 2015, from

5. Performance Based: Grades the students achievement on some sort of real-world project or activity.

5.1. Purpose of Assessment: The assessment is designed to capture a bigger picture of the student than a standard test.

5.2. Advantages: Student is graded on what he actually does, rather than just checking the right boxes. Can help to measure characteristics like creativity and perseverance, which actually make the difference in life.

5.3. Disadvantages: Some people fear that not teaching to a test will hurt the students when they need to take important exams like the SAT. However, this is contrary to the evidence. (Edutopia, 2010) Takes a lot of time and effort from the teacher's side. Difficult to make grading clear.

5.4. This is an Assessment OF Learning and could be considered Assessment For Learning in the sense that the student definitely learn and reinforce learning through the projects.

5.5. Example

5.6. Citations: Edutopia; Comprehensive Assessment: An Overview. (2010, August 3). Retrieved June 24, 2015, from

6. Formative: Assessment of what the students know and do not know. This goes on continually in the learning process.

6.1. Purpose of Assessment: To find out where students are in the learning process, so that a teacher can know where to guide them next.

6.2. Advantages: Teachers and students do not need to wait until the chance to learn is over before seeing how they have done. Corrections and adjustments can be made as a topic is taught.

6.3. Disadvantages: If one follows the definition in "Assessment for Learning Defined" (Stiggins, 2005), than formative assessment merely gives a teacher a check in on where the students are, but the assessment does not teach or reinforce the learning.

6.4. Could be either Assessment OF Learning or Assessment FOR Learning depending on how it is done. The article, "Assessment for learning defined" (Stiggins, 2005) makes a distinction between formative and Assessment for learning, but it is clear that formative could become assessment for learning if done correctly.

6.5. Examples: Diagnostic testing conducted when a student enters, or throughout the school year, when used to guide the teaching, could be a form of Formative Assessment. (OECD, 2005 p. 3) Informal formative assessment may be simply asking questions which give a teacher an idea of how much students understand. Questions can also be used to identify common misconceptions.

6.6. Citations Formative Assessment: Improving Learning in Secondary Classrooms. (2005, November 1). Retrieved June 24, 2015, from Stiggins, R. (2005, September 1). Assessment for learning defined. Retrieved June 24, 2015, from

7. Diagnostic: According to the Australian Department of Education, diagnostic testing: used ‘for learning’ where taking action to adjust teaching plays a significant role in improving learning outcomes for all students.

7.1. Purpose of Assessment: Gathering information to help determine how to teach the student(s) in the future.

7.2. Advantages: Student needs can be identified and catered to.

7.3. Disadvantages: Takes time away from normal class. Formal types of testing may require special skill on the part of the teacher.

7.4. Assessment OF Learning

7.5. Example: When studying Japanese I used the Japanese Language and Proficiency Exam to show me which areas of the language I needed work in. I was then able to adjust my study habits in order to continue improving.

7.6. Citations: Department of Education. (n.d.). Retrieved June 24, 2015, from

8. Summative: A final test at the end of a unit.

8.1. Purpose of Assessment: Check how much students have learned.

8.2. Advantages: Grading can be clear and fair in the sense that everyone is judged on the same scale.

8.3. Disadvantages: Generally does not motivate deep learning (assuming we are talking about a traditional test). Is not useful for teaching like Assessment FOR Learning or performance based testing.

8.4. Assessment OF Learning

8.5. Example: The traditional test at the end of a unit. This could be an essay, multiple choice test or many others.

8.6. Citations

9. High-Stakes: Assessment with tangible rewards for passing and consequences for failure. (See Example)

9.1. Purpose of Assessment: Usually to decide if a test taker is qualified to do something like driving a car, being a CPA etc.

9.2. Advantages: Since the stakes are high, test takers must take the test seriously and must come prepared.

9.3. Disadvantages: Subjective qualities like self-control cannot be tested easily. This may make a difference, for example for a driver, when he is faced with a choice of whether or not to drink or drive fast.

9.4. Assessment OF Learning

9.5. Example: The Praxis Test. Passing is one step in becoming a teacher, but failure results in having to re-study and retake the test (and pay again).

9.6. Citations