Student Assessments By: Irma Kittrell

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Student Assessments By: Irma Kittrell by Mind Map: Student Assessments   By: Irma Kittrell

1. Performance-Based

1.1. Definition

1.1.1. It uses tasks that require students to demonstrate their knowledge, skills, and strategies by creating a response or a product

1.2. Advantages/ DIsadvantages https://edpolicy.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/events/materials/2011-06-linked-learning-performance-based-assessment.pdf. June 25, 2015

1.2.1. Requires students to perform a task or generate their own responses.

1.2.2. Mimics the kind of work that is done in real-world contexts.

1.2.3. It taps into students’ higher-order thinking skills.

1.2.4. Often have more than one acceptable solution or answer and also require students to explain their reasoning.

1.2.5. Broad-based standardized tests do not give feedback, making it difficult for students to see what areas they need better instruction in. http://www.ehow.com/info_8413085_disadvantages-performancebased-assessment.html. June 26, 2015.

1.2.6. When using learning journals where writing is not the primary objective, those who struggle with writing may not provide an accurate assessment. http://www.ehow.com/info_8413085_disadvantages-performancebased-assessment.html. June 26, 2015.

1.3. Examples for Grade 4 http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-performance-assessments-25190.html. June 26, 2015.

1.3.1. Demonstrations

1.3.2. Group projects

1.3.3. Written assessments

1.4. Assessment Design

1.4.1. Assessment OF learning is the use of a task or an activity to measure, record and report on a student's level of achievement in regards to specific learning expectations.

2. High-stakes

2.1. Definition

2.1.1. Is a test with important consequences for the test taker

2.2. Advanatges/ Disadvantages

2.2.1. Impacts decisions may include the denial of a high school diploma, the repetition of a grade, the labeling of students and schools in pejorative ways, the withholding of funding, and even the closing of a school.

2.2.2. Critics of high stakes testing contend that NCLB mandates for proficiency in reading and mathematics have meant the de-emphasis or elimination of art, music, oral language, history, science, physical education, and even recess in many public schools, especially in low-performing, under-served schools. http://www.education.com/reference/article/high-stakes-testing1/ June 25, 2015.

2.2.3. High stakes test opponents argue that test scores are more likely related to socioeconomic status than to school test preparation. Standardized tests punish poor, minority, special education, and non-English-speaking students in underfunded schools who must compete with middle class and wealthy students in well-funded schools on the same high stakes tests. http://www.education.com/reference/article/high-stakes-testing1/. June 25, 2015.

2.2.4. Measurement issues have been another cause for concern about high stakes testing. Group standardized tests inaccurately assess individual strengths and weaknesses, and the results are unreliable. http://www.education.com/reference/article/high-stakes-testing1/. June 25, 2015

2.3. Examples for Grade 4 http://edglossary.org/high-stakes-testing/. June 26, 2015

2.3.1. Grade promotion

2.4. Assessment Design

2.4.1. Assessment OF learning is the use of a task or an activity to measure, record and report on a student's level of achievement in regards to specific learning expectations.

3. Self-assessment

3.1. Definition

3.1.1. Student self-assessment occurs when learners assess their own performance.

3.2. Advantages/ Disadvantages https://teaching.unsw.edu.au/printpdf/547. June 26, 2015.

3.2.1. Increase students self-awareness through reflective practice

3.2.2. Helping students take control of their own learning and assessment, and giving them the chance to manage their own learning and development more independently

3.2.3. Contributing to the development of critical reviewing skills, enabling the learner to more objectively evaluate their own performance

3.2.4. Lower performing and less experienced students tend to overestimate their achievements. As with peer assessment, students' ability to self-assess accurately must be developed over time, and with substantial guidance

3.2.5. Students may resist self-assessment, perceiving assessment and grading to be the teacher's job, or having no confidence in their ability to assess themselves.

3.2.6. Issues can arise if students' self-assessments are not consistent with peer or staff assessments.

3.3. Examples for Grade 4 http://www.waikato.ac.nz/tdu/pdf/booklets/9_SelfPeerAssessment.pdf. June 26, 2015.

3.3.1. Class Participation

3.3.2. Presentation

3.3.3. Teacher created self assessment sheet (subject based/ assignment based)

3.4. Assessment Design

3.4.1. Assessment OF learning is the use of a task or an activity to measure, record and report on a student's level of achievement in regards to specific learning expectations.

4. Diagnostic

4.1. Definition

4.1.1. It can be used to diagnose strengths and areas of need in all students.

4.2. Advantages/ Disadvantages https://as.exeter.ac.uk/support/staffdevelopment/aspectsofacademicpractice/assessmentandfeedback/principlesofassessment/typesofassessment-definitions/. June 25, 2015.

4.2.1. Assesses what the learner already knows

4.2.2. The nature of difficulties that the learner might have

4.2.3. Used before teaching or when a problem arises

4.2.4. Diagnostic assessment looks backwards rather than forwards.

4.2.5. Assesses what the learner already knows and/or the nature of difficulties that the learner might have, which, if undiagnosed, might limit their engagement in new learning

4.2.6. Used before teaching or when a problem arises

4.3. Examples for Grade 4 http://www.slideshare.net/pafirth/diagnostic-assessment-ideas-12934737. June 26, 2015

4.3.1. Journal

4.3.2. Quiz/ Test

4.3.3. Posters

4.4. Assessment Design

4.4.1. Assessment FOR learning is the use of a task or an activity for the purpose of determining student progress during a unit or block of instruction. Since teachers are now afforded the chance to adjust classroom instruction based upon the needs of the students their needs can be better met.

5. Portfolio

5.1. Definition

5.1.1. Form that learners do together with their teachers, and is an alternative to the classic classroom test.

5.2. Advantages/ Disadvantages http://www.teachthemenglish.com/2013/11/what-are-the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-portfolio-assessment/. June 25, 2015.

5.2.1. Process portfolio documents the stages of learning and provides a progressive record of student growth.

5.2.2. Product portfolio demonstrates mastery of a learning task or a set of learning objectives and contains only the best work... Teachers use process portfolios to help students identify learning goals, document progress over time, and demonstrate learning mastery.

5.2.3. Promoting student self-evaluation, reflection, and critical thinking.

5.2.4. Providing flexibility in measuring how students accomplish their learning goals.

5.2.5. Facilitating cooperative learning activities, including peer evaluation and tutoring, cooperative learning groups, and peer conferencing.

5.2.6. Enabling measurement of multiple dimensions of student progress by including different types of data and materials.

5.2.7. Extremely labor intensive process

5.2.8. Creates a noticeable chain of accountability

5.3. Examples for Grade 4 http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/197171/chapters/The-Types-of-Portfolios.aspx. June 26, 2015.

5.3.1. Working Portfolios

5.3.2. Assessment Portfolios

5.4. Assessment Design

5.4.1. Assessment FOR learning is the use of a task or an activity for the purpose of determining student progress during a unit or block of instruction. Since teachers are now afforded the chance to adjust classroom instruction based upon the needs of the students their needs can be better met.

6. Authentic

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. The tasks and conditions are more closely aligned to what you would experience within employment. the tasks and conditions are more closely aligned to what you would experience within employment. the tasks and conditions are more closely aligned to what you would experience within employment.

6.2. Advantages/Disadvantages

6.2.1. Designed to develop students skills and competencies alongside academic development.

6.2.2. Teaching to such tasks guarantees that we are concentrating on worthwhile skills and strategies

6.2.3. Students are learning and practicing how to apply important knowledge and skills for authentic purposes.

6.2.4. Authentic assessment may not be appropriate in all cases

6.2.5. Authentic assessments must be credible, pubicly supported, and legally acceptable

6.2.6. Generalizing from authentic assessments may become unrealistic as the number of tasks required can become impractical

6.3. Examples for Grade 4 http://www.ala.org/aasl/sites/ala.org.aasl/files/content/aaslpubsandjournals/slr/edchoice/SLMQ_AuthenticAssessment_InfoPower.pdf. June 26, 2015

6.3.1. Read interesting literature

6.3.2. Write creative papers

6.3.3. Integrate resource information with personal viewpoints

6.4. Assessment Design

6.4.1. Assessment OF learning is the use of a task or an activity to measure, record and report on a student's level of achievement in regards to specific learning expectations.

7. Formative

7.1. Definition

7.1.1. Is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures conducted by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment.

7.2. Advantages/ Disadvantages https://as.exeter.ac.uk/support/staffdevelopment/aspectsofacademicpractice/assessmentandfeedback/principlesofassessment/typesofassessment-definitions/. June 25, 2015.

7.2.1. Contributes to learning through providing feedback.

7.2.2. Indicates what is good about a piece of work and why this is good

7.2.3. Indicates what is not so good and how the work could be improved.

7.2.4. It can affect what the student and the teacher does next.

7.2.5. The need to rush through a series of units, which causes students to lack mastery once the assessment is given at the end of the unit.

7.2.6. Time taken to assess during the lesson and fear that they may not even finish the lesson.

7.2.7. Teachers may lack training or professional development on how to use formative assessments successfully because, historically, assessments are completed at the end.

7.3. Examples for Grade 4 https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1nzhdnyMQmio5lNT75ITB45rHyLISHEEHZlHTWJRqLmQ/pub?start=false&loop=false&delayms=3000#slide=id.g583166bc_1_94. June 26, 2015

7.3.1. Venn diagram

7.3.2. Exit tickets

7.3.3. Check for transfer

7.4. Assessment Design

7.4.1. Assessment FOR learning is the use of a task or an activity for the purpose of determining student progress during a unit or block of instruction. Since teachers are now afforded the chance to adjust classroom instruction based upon the needs of the students their needs can be better met.

8. Summative

8.1. Definition

8.1.1. Is used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional period—typically at the end of a project, unit, course, semester, program, or school year.

8.2. Advantages/Disadvantages https://as.exeter.ac.uk/support/staffdevelopment/aspectsofacademicpractice/assessmentandfeedback/principlesofassessment/typesofassessment-definitions/. June 25, 2015

8.2.1. Used to quantify achievement

8.2.2. Used to reward achievement

8.2.3. To provide data for selection (to the next stage in education or to employment).

8.2.4. Can provide information that has formative/diagnostic value

8.2.5. External summative assessments of students used to judge teacher and school performance can negatively impact what occurs in the classroom. http://www.ehow.com/info_8490580_disadvantages-summative-assessments.html. June 26, 2015.

8.2.6. To be free of distortion, an assessment must be constructed so that it accurately reflects the whole of the material it's intended to cover, including the way the material has been taught. There also needs to be consistency across tasks and how they are marked, both internally within the assessment and externally across different versions. http://www.ehow.com/info_8490580_disadvantages-summative-assessments.html. June 26, 2015.

8.3. Examples for Grade 4 http://edglossary.org/summative-assessment/. June 26, 2015.

8.3.1. Chapter tests

8.3.2. End of unit tests

8.3.3. Standardized tests

8.4. Assessment Design

8.4.1. Assessment OF learning is the use of a task or an activity to measure, record and report on a student's level of achievement in regards to specific learning expectations.

9. Peer assessment

9.1. Definition

9.1.1. Is a process whereby students or their peers grade assignments or tests based on a teacher's benchmarks.

9.2. Advantages/DIsadvantages http://sydney.edu.au/education_social_work/groupwork/docs/SelfPeerAssessment.pdf. June 26, 2015.

9.2.1. Saves teachers time and improve students' understanding of course materials

9.2.2. Additional briefing time can increase a lecturer’s workload.

9.2.3. The process has a degree of risk with respect to reliability of grades as peer pressure

9.2.4. Students may apply elevated grades or friendships may influence the assessment, though this can be reduced if students can submit their assessments independent of the group.

9.2.5. Students will have a tendency to award everyone the same mark.

9.2.6. Students feel ill equipped to undertake the assessment.

9.2.7. Students may be reluctant to make judgements regarding their peers.

9.2.8. At the other extreme students may be discriminated against if students ‘gang up’ against one group member.

9.2.9. Encourages students to reflect on their role and contribution to the process of the group work.

9.2.10. Provides more relevant feedback to students as it is generated by their peers.

9.3. Examples for Grade 4 http://www.waikato.ac.nz/tdu/pdf/booklets/9_SelfPeerAssessment.pdf. JUne 26, 2015.

9.3.1. Peer editing and feedback.

9.3.2. Exchanging of notes/ information

9.3.3. Optimum design elements - focusing on directionality and contact.

9.4. Assessment Design

9.4.1. Peer Assessments are Assessment AS learning it is the use of a task or an activity to allow students the opportunity to use the assessment to further their own learning. Students are able to reflect on their own learning and identify areas of strength and need. The tasks given offer students the chance to set their own personal goals and advocate for their own learning.