Types of Assessments

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Types of Assessments by Mind Map: Types of Assessments

1. Advantages - High quality formative assessment has a powerful impact on student learning Formative assessment is particularly effective for students who have not done well in school In larger classes not every student can be questioned because of time constraints. May decrease a student's test anxiety less reteaching at the end because many of the problems with mastery are addressed before final tests. Disadvantages- Students may not take the assessments seriously Teachers may feel that they do not have enough time for more assessments Types of Formative Assessment- Observations during in-class activities including non-verbal feedback Homework exercises as review for exams and class discussions Journals that are reviewed periodically Question and answer sessions both planned and spontaneous In-class activities where students informally present their work Self-evaluation of performance and progress Graphic organizers

2. Diagnostic tests measure students' understanding of a subject area or skills base. Teachers typically administer diagnostics for reading and math skills, using the results to provide remedIal instruction or place students within appropriately leveled classes. ASSESSMENTOF LEARNING AS IT REFLECTS WHAT HAS BEEN ASSIMILATED PREVIOUSLY

2.1. Advantages include: that it can reveal information that can be used to be determined what needs to be done to improve. It brings out deficiencies in learning. It enables an individualized program to be arranged for the student. It also allows realistic goals to be set for the student. Disadvantages of diagnostic learning include that if its design is not efficient the wrong data can be gathered. Additionally it may be done in a short period of time and may coincide with a period when a student is coming to a school for the first time when shyness and inhibitions might skew the results of the tests. Examples of Diagnostic Assessments Pre-tests on content and abilities Self-assessments for identifying skills and competencies Interviews of each student

3. Formative assessments are used for understanding how much learning has taken place frequently and in different formats They also provide a baseline activity is completed. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING AS IT TAKES INTO ACCOUNT HOW THE STUDENT HAS PROGRESSED STEP BY STEP

3.1. Advantages • Formative assessment produces greater increases in student achievement • Formative assessment that occurs within and between instructional units as well as within and between lessons, has been shown to improve students' achievement. • In classrooms where medium- and short-cycle formative assessment was used, teachers reported greater professional satisfaction and increased student engagement in learning. These assessments are not graded, and therefore takes the anxiety away from students Disadvantages: • include the inability of the teacher to involve all students be • cause of time constraints. • Formative assessment across marking periods, quarters, semesters, or years (intervals of four weeks to one year) has not been shown to improve students' achievement. Examples • Observations during in-class activities, • Homework exercises as review for exams and class discussions • Journals that are reviewed periodically during the semester • Question and answer sessions and conferences between teacher and student • In-class activities where students informally present their work

4. Summative assessments are used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional period—typically at the end of a project, unit, course, semester, program, or school year. ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING AS IT IS THE FINAL TEST

4.1. Advantages The advantages of summative are several. It helps in measuring progress towards students’ goals. They provide motivation for students to study and pay attention in class, particularly as they get older and grades become a major indicator of success in college. They also give great insight to teachers : if none of the children in a class score above a 2 or 3 on an AP exam, it is much more likely to be the result of poor or off-topic instruction than a class of students unable to complete the work. Disadvantages Precisely because summative assessments reflect so closely on teacher performance, many instructors are accused of “teaching to the test.” Even students with excellent knowledge of the material may run into questions that trip them up, especially if they get nervous under pressure. As a result, summative assessment is not always the most accurate reflection of learning. Additionally summative tests do nothing to remedy instructional problems before they become critical. Types of Summative Assessment Examinations Final examination Term papers Projects

5. Performance-based- Performance assessment is an alternative to traditional methods of testing student achievement. While traditional testing requires students to answer questions correctly (often on a multiple-choice test), performance assessment requires students to demonstrate knowledge and skills, including the process by which they solve problems. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING AS IT REFLECTS WHETHER THE STUDENTS ARE LEARNING WHAT IS BEING TAUGHT ON A DAILY BASIS

5.1. Advantages Advantages of Performance assessments include their ability to determine if students are achieving the higher standards set by an education body. This brochure explains features of this assessment alternative, suggests ways to evaluate it, and offers exploratory questions you might ask your child's teacher about this subject. One key feature of all performance-based assessments is that they require students to be active participants. They also focus attention on how students arrive at their answers and require students to demonstrate the knowledge or skills needed to obtain a correct answer. These assessments help in allowing a teacher to see if the students understand the concepts and know how to apply them. They also allow students to assess their own progress and be more responsible for their education. Disadvantages They generally include more subjective judgment than traditional testing methods even if there is a rubric. Students may be unintentionally penalized for such things as having a disability, being from a certain cultural background, or attending classes at a school with limited resources Examples of performance based testing: Group projects enabling students to work together on a complex problem that requires planning Essays assessing students' understanding of a subject through a written description. Experiments testing how well students understand scientific concepts and can carry out processes. Opportunities for students to show their mastery of subject-area content

6. A high-stakes test is any test used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts, most commonly for the purpose of accountability—i.e., the attempt by federal, state, or local government agencies and school administrators to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING AS IT HAPPENS AT THEEND OF A PERIOD

6.1. Advantages They can be used to help teachers create a learning plan based on student needs. It is readily available to all stakeholders. They can actually help students improve their test taking abilities. They allow administrators to know where resources should be allocated or diverted. Disadvantages Preparing for standardized tests can take away from the subject areas that are not tested, including those that encourage creativity. High-stakes tests cause the importance of any subject that isn't math or language arts to be minimized. Pressure on teachers can clamp down on creativity and innovation. Teachers often feel compelled to "teach to the test,". Less freedom and innovation can also mean unhappier teachers and higher classroom turnover. Examples of high stakes tests Advanced Placement (AP). The Cambridge system SAT ACT TIMSS PISA

7. Portfolio assessment is an evaluation tool used to document student learning. Portfolios are a collection of student work that allows assessment by providing evidence of effort and accomplishments in relation to specific goals. It is considered a form of authentic assessment and offers an alternative or an addition to traditional methods of grading and high stakes exams. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING AS IT REFLECTS WHAT THE STUDENTS HAS LEARNT OVER A PERIOD OF TIME

7.1. Advantages- Controlled space to document, review, and analyze content leaning. Provide evidence of effort and accomplishments in relation to the specific instructional goals. Allows students to judge their own work and identify their own strengths and weaknesses. Teachers are able to make decisions about how to improve the student's work. • Assessment portfolios promote communication between teachers and students. Disadvantages • The work may not be the students’ own. • Some students may not place enough importance on other formal exercises. • Formative assessment is time-consuming proposition Examples Research projects

8. Authentic assessment refers to assessment tasks that resemble reading and writing in the real world and in school (Hiebert, Valencia & Afflerbach, 1994; Wiggins, 1993). Its aim is to assess many different kinds of literacy abilities in contexts that closely resemble actual situations in which those abilities are used. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING AS IT IS A PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT IN KNOWLEDGE

8.1. Advantages This ensures that students are learning and practicing how to apply important knowledge and skills for authentic purposes. This assessment is geared towards real world relevance. Activities such as these ensure that students are engaged over a significant period of time. The nature of the activities which relate to the assessment forces students to examine problems from different perspectives and this mirror real life situations. Additionally collaboration is integral to the tasks rather than achievable by the individual learner. This type of assessment promotes creativity and enhances written and oral presentation skills. Disadvantages It is sometimes challenging to provide consistency in grading especially as it is subjective. It is also difficult to develop for various types of courses and ranges of objectives. Additionally it may be time-intensive to manage. Example Research projects

9. Self-assessment- Students' prior knowledge and skills are analyzed when they are asked to assess their own level of knowledge or skill. The objective is to get an idea of the range of abilities and experience of the class as a whole, not to evaluate individuals. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING IT IS A PROGRESSIVEASSESSMENT

9.1. Advantages The advantage of self-assessment is that it is easy to construct and score, and it causes low-anxiety for the student. It also encourages student involvement and responsibility. Students are able to reflect on their role and contribution to their own success. It also improves the development of student’s judgment skills. Disadvantages Students may not be able to accurately assess their abilities. However, accuracy improves when the response options are clear and tied to specific concepts or behaviors (e.g, what am I able to do with what I know) that students can reflect on or even mentally simulate, such as trying to define a term, or explain a concept, or recall specific kinds and qualities of experience, such as building or writing or performing in a specific context. There is a potential to increase the teacher’s workload increases by needing to brief students on the process as well as on-going guidance on performing self assessment. Some students may feel that they are ill equipped to undertake the assessment.

10. Peer assessment is a process through which students and instructors share in the evaluation of student work. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING AS IT DEALS WITH A COLLABORATIVE DISCOVERY OF WHAT IS BEING LEARNT

10.1. Advantages This type of assessment encourages students to be involved in the assessment process. It is also possible that the time and workload of teachers, which is used for marking can be lessened. Generally students tend to put extra effort to perform better in front of their peers. Students are able learn from each other’ work and learn to apply other generic skills. Disadvantages Sometimes peer pressure and friendship can influence the reliability of grades. Students may have a tendency to give everyone the same mark (for example, there may be collusion in return for good grades). Fairness may not be maintained because extroverted students can be usually be marked higher and quieter students got marked down