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Assessments by Mind Map: Assessments

1. Performance-based

1.1. Performance-based assessments measure students ability to apply their knowledge. The purpose of this assessment is to see real-life application of knowledge and to see students engage and interact with learning.

1.2. I would argue that this is an assessment both for learning and to learn because it measures student ability to apply knowledge, but it is also a vital part of the learning process, as students continue to learn through their conversations and performances.

1.3. Advantages: Students will learn different perspectives, engage with various audiences, and become critical of theory. Shows mastery of knowledge at a deep level.

1.4. Disadvantages: Risky as students are given a lot of freedom and trust to challenge themselves by pursuing complex, interesting projects. Requires lot's of monitoring and management, with a number of built-in check ins.

1.5. I would use this in my classroom during my English class this summer by allowing students to choose their own novels to read, and to critique their books with a variety of devices. They will then need to express their novels to the class by way of presentations, skits, movies, etc.

2. Authentic

2.1. This is perhaps the most complex type of assessment. It measures the authenticity or the 'reality' and purposefulness of learning and knowledge gained. The purpose of this is to measure readiness for placement in workforce or the 'real world', and measures complex performances.

2.2. I believe this assessment if a measurement of learning because it intends to see if the entire process of learning has been successful or allows the student to demonstrate final mastery of content.

2.3. Advantages: This type of assessment allows the student to channel many different types of engagement and expression into showing mastery; it allows the teacher to see complex performances of knowledge

2.4. Disadvantages: It requires careful scaffolding to allows students to get to a position where they can perform at high levels.

2.5. In my own classroom, I would use this in my 12th grade class through something like a mock trial at the end of the government course. This is especially relevant because I teach at a law-based charter school, so acquisition of legal skills is a part of every student's agenda.

3. Diagnostic

3.1. This type of assessment usually occurs prior to instruction to measure a student's existing knowledge pertaining to a specific subject area or subsection of a subject. The purpose of a diagnostic assessment is to for the teacher to determine each student's level before planning or beginning instruction for a specific area of knowledge. This way, the teacher can differentiate for different students.

3.2. I would conclude that this type of assessment is used primarily for learning, as it indicates the level and complexity of learning and instruction to come.

3.3. The advantages of this type of assessment are as follows: 1) the teacher gains a good idea of the spectrum of knowledge in the classroom; 2) the teacher know how to plan the unit/lessons from there on out; 3) the students establish a self-motivation for themselves to learn more material

3.4. A primary disadvantage of diagnostic assessments is that the teacher will often design the diagnostic based on their own curriculum of method of understanding the material.

3.5. An example of a diagnostic test for my grade level, which is 12th grade social studies, to do a pre-lesson 'brain dump'. This means that I would write three key words that have to do with the lesson or material, and have students write around the paper. Their writing should include definitions, connections, examples etc.

4. High Stakes

4.1. High stakes assessments are typically used to make a very important decision for the student. This means that the results of the exam will determine a major next step for the student. This assessment serves a final purpose of measuring the student's need to either move on from the grade/school/lesson or to repeat the material.

4.1.1. Project specifications

4.1.2. End User requirements

4.1.3. Action points sign-off

4.2. This type of assessment is definitely a measurement of learning, as it is a final testing for the student, and often, a final chance.

4.2.1. Define actions as necessary

4.3. Advantages: Exerts the right amount of pressure on a student to perform well in order to advance to the next level; gives students the chance to 'prove themselves' etc.

4.4. Disadvantages: Students may feel too much pressure to perform well; students may have performed well all during the school year but then just bomb this assessment; may not be indicative of a student's total capability.

4.5. In my classroom currently, I am teaching summer school English. The entire class is a sort of high stakes assessment. Their final project in this class will surely determine whether students will be eligible to be promoted to the next grade level.

5. Portfolio

5.1. Portfolio assessments are used to measure a collection of student work. The purpose of this assessment is to allow students to collect a number of achievements and to measure their successes by evaluating their portfolio according to specific guidelines or goals.

5.2. This assessment is a measurement of learning because it is a final compilation of student work. Students are learning throughout the process of portfolio building, but at the time of a portfolio assessment, teachers are measuring what has been learned throughout the process.

5.3. Advantages: Develops over time, and allows students to build upon previous projects; integrates an automatic system of feedback.

5.4. Disadvantages: Timely process and requires great effort from both teacher and student. Requires extra class management.

5.5. I would implement this assessment into my classroom by breaking up complex projects into steps, and having students keep all of their research and project work in a single portfolio. I would regularly collect their portfolio and grade accordingly.

6. Formative

6.1. Formative assessments are usually given throughout instruction. Their purpose is to 'check in' with students throughout learning, rather than at the end of learning.

6.2. I would conclude that formative assessments are used as a tool to measure learning as well as encourage learning to continue. Teacher have a chance to build in checkpoints throughout the entire learning process to ensure that students comprehend each step of the material, but the feedback from formative assessments also pushes students to continue deeper learning.

6.3. Advantages for formative assessments include: finding gaps within a students learning process and getting to know individual student growth, which helps for differentiated instruction

6.4. Disadvantages include: it may be time-consuming to engage in formative assessments throughout the lesson; students may not take these check-in assessments as seriously as they do summative assessments

6.5. Examples of formative assessments to use in my 12th grade government classroom include exit slips, oral peer reviews, stop the lesson and have students present knowledge so far, stop the lesson and have students teach a specific mini lesson to the class etc.

7. Summative

7.1. Summative assessments are typically given to students after a defined period of learning has taken place. The purpose of summative assessments is to measure the student's overall mastery of the standard, lesson or objective.

7.1.1. Dependencies

7.1.2. Milestones

7.2. I would conclude that this is a measure of learning, because summative assessments are given at the end of a particular unit or lesson to determine if students have met the goal/objective.

7.2.1. Schedule

7.2.2. Budget

7.3. Disadvantages: end-all/be-all examination of student mastery that occurs ONCE after the material is taught. Students may not be good standardized test takers, or may just express themselves accurately during one summative assessment.

7.3.1. KPI's

7.4. Advantages: Teachers will be able to measure the overall mastery of material. Students are able to connect all of the lessons learned and formative assessment feedback to show deeper understanding of material. Although lessons, formative assessments, etc can differ for various students, summative assessments standardize the outcome expectations for all students.

7.5. Examples for my 12th grade social studies classroom include: formal tests, papers and essays, presentations, etc.

8. Self Assessment

8.1. Self assessment means to allow students time and space to process their growth and reflect on their achievements. It also means to have students measure themselves against known objectives and standards. The purpose of this assessment type is to encourage students to take ownership of their own learning and to be accountable for their progress.

8.2. I would conclude that self assessments are used for learning because students are able to encourage themselves to push harder. It can be used at the end of a performance activity, or even as a formative assessment throughout lessons.

8.3. Advantages: Students claim ownership of their own learning; students set and measure their own personal goals and mini-goals.

8.4. Disadvantages: Students may not be honest with themselves about their own progress or gaps within learning; students may not be able to motivate themselves to push harder; it may be hard to achieve substantial reflection pieces.

8.5. In my classroom, I would have 1-on-1 conferences with students at the beginning, midpoint, and end of class to set some goals for each students. I would allow students to set goals for themselves, so we can have a foundation from with they may reflect throughout the class.

9. Peer Assessment

9.1. This type of assessment involves students evaluating each other. They work to measure their peer's work against the teacher's standards and the overall goal of the lesson. The purpose of this assessment is for students to trust one another and gain honest and beneficial feedback from each other.

9.2. Peer assessments are a tool for learning, as students grow from their feedback. They learn from each other and can teach each other.

9.3. Advantages: Builds community and trust within the classroom, serves as kind of formative assessment, and enriches level of feedback for students.

9.4. Disadvantages: Students may not take this task/assessment seriously or there may be bullying that will happen, students may be embarrassed to share work or feedback honestly and constructively, teacher must be very clear about instructions (what do students look for when peer assessing).

9.5. Examples for my classroom will include peer reviewing each other's essays; involving the students in assessing student presentations; making a general list of do's and dont's and having the class assess each others work based on a communal list; choosing a student's essay or work anonymously and having the entire class edit/review/give feedback.