Human Sexual Reproduction

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Human Sexual Reproduction by Mind Map: Human Sexual Reproduction

1. Prevent of STI

1.1. Using condoms during sexual intercourse to reduce the risk of infection

1.2. Not abusing drugs or sharing infection needles

1.3. Ensuring that donated blood is screened for HIV and safe for using

2. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI)

2.1. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

2.1.1. Caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

2.1.2. HIV attacks the immune system and causes the person to lose immunity and protection against common infections

2.1.3. AIDS is the final stage of HIV

2.1.4. Infected person will suffer from severe weight loss, lung infections and brain infection

2.2. Syphillis

2.2.1. Person infected may suffer from blindness and inability to move some parts of the body

2.2.2. If left untreated, syphillis may lead to heart failure, insanity or even death

2.3. Gonorrhoea

2.3.1. Infected people may become unable to bear children

2.3.2. Some babies become blind when bacteria enter the baby's eyes during birth

3. Permanent Methods of Birth Control

3.1. Vasectomy

3.1.1. Involves tying and cutting part of the sperm duct

3.1.2. Sperm will not be ejaculated during sexual intercourse

3.1.3. The male is unable to make his spouse pregnant

3.2. Tubal Ligation

3.2.1. Involves tying and cutting of both oviducts

3.2.2. Prevents the sperms from entering the egg

3.2.3. Fertilisation will not occur

4. Temporary Methods of Birth Control

4.1. New node

4.1.1. Natural Methods Abstinence Not having sexual intercourse at all Withdrawal methods Withdrawal of the penis just before ejaculation Rhythm method Do not have sexual intercourse during the fertile period of woman's menstrual cycle

4.1.2. Chemical Methods Spermicide A chemical that kills or block sperms from entering the uterus Comes in gel form, aerosol foarms or foarming tablets that are inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse Not reliable when used on its own, usually used with a condom or diaphragm Contraceptive pills Contain female sex hormones which prevent ovulation Prevent the release of a mature egg Must be take under doctor's prescription But may suffer from some side effects

4.1.3. Mechanical methods Condom A thin rubber tube use to cover the erect penis It's impermeable to sperms Also impermeable to bacteria and viruses Protects the user from getting sexually transmitted infections Diaphragm A dome-shaped rubber cap with an elastic rim Is inserted into the vagina and placed over the cervix Impermeable to sperms and prevent sperms from entering the uterus Intra-Uterine Divice (IUD) A piece of plastic or metal that is inserted into the uterus Disrupts the function of the uterus by preventing the embryo from implanting in the uterine lining Provides effective protection for a long period of time

5. Abortion

5.1. The termination of a pregnancy

5.2. Doctor surgically removes the embryo or foetus from the uterus during an abortion

5.3. Usually carried out within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy

5.4. Parts of the sexual reproductive may get infected or damaged

5.5. Can lead to the disruption of the system's function and may cause difficulties in getting prenant again

6. Menstrual Cycle

6.1. Menstruation

6.1.1. Day 1 -5

6.1.2. Unfertilised egg and blood are discharged out of the body with the help of muscular constractions of the uterus

6.2. Ovulation

6.2.1. Day 14 -16

6.2.2. A mature ovum is released from the ovary The fertile period

7. Puberty

7.1. Between the ages of 10 and 14 the human body starts to produce sex hormones

7.1.1. Male Ages 13 -16 Facial hair starts to grow Voice-box enlarges and voice deepens Production of sperms begins and ejaculation occurs Penis and testes increase in size Hair starts to grow in the armpits

7.1.2. Female Ages 11 -14 A monthly cycle of menstruation and ovulation begins Breast and uterus enlarge and hips broaden Hair starts to grow in the pubic region

7.2. It also produces a higher amount of growth hormones that leads to growth spurts

7.3. An adolescent becomes capable of reproducing and experiences rapid growth

8. Sexual Reproduction

8.1. Fertilisation

8.1.1. The process where the nucleus of the sperm fuses with the nucleus of the egg

8.1.2. During sexual intercourse sperm deposited in the vagina travel up to the uterus through the oviduct to the egg If an egg is present in an oviduct, fertilisation may take place

8.1.3. Fetilised egg divides repeatedly to form the embryo The embryo moves into the uterus and is implanted on the uterine lining

8.2. Pregnancy

8.2.1. The embryo develops into a foetus (unborn baby) during 9 months of pregnancy

8.2.2. At the end of pregnancy, the muscucles of uterus contract to push the baby

8.2.3. Cervix enlarges to allow the baby to pass through. This process is known as birth

8.3. Heredity

8.3.1. The nuclei of the sperm and egg contain genes Genes contain intructions that determine the basic charateristics of a person

8.3.2. Genes are passed on to the new individual

8.3.3. Heredity is a process by which charateristics are passed down genetically from one generation to the next

8.3.4. We inherit charateristics from our parents, these charateristics are known as hereditary charateristics

9. Female Reproductive System

9.1. Cervix

9.1.1. A ring of muscle at the lower of the uterus

9.2. Vagina (birth canal)

9.2.1. A muscular tube that joins the cervix to the outside of the body

9.3. Fallopian tube (oviduct)

9.3.1. A muscular tube connecting the ovary to the uterus

9.3.2. Contracts to push the egg towards the uterus

9.4. Ovary

9.4.1. Produces eggs and female sex hormones

9.4.2. Take turns the produce an egg every month

9.5. Uterus (womb)

9.5.1. A pear-shaped organ with thick muscular walls

9.5.2. The internal of the uterus is covered with a layer called the uterine lining

10. Male Reproductive System

10.1. Urethra

10.1.1. A tube which leads semen pass to the outside of the body through penis

10.2. Sexual intercourse

10.2.1. This requireds the male reproductive cell (sperm) to fuses with the female reproductive cell (egg)

10.2.2. The erect penis is inseted into the vagina during sexual intercourse :))))

10.2.3. Penis ejaculates semen (containing sperms) into the vagina The sperms then will swim into the uterus

10.3. Male sex glands

10.3.1. Containing nutrients and enzymes

10.3.2. Providing the sperm the energy to move

10.4. Testis (plural: testes)

10.4.1. Produces sperms and male sex hormones

10.5. Scrotum

10.5.1. Testis is found in the scrotum

10.6. Sperm duct

10.6.1. A muscular tube that carries sperm from testis to the urethra

10.7. Penis

10.7.1. Becomes erect when sexually excited

10.7.2. Sperms are ejaculated through penis during sexual intercourse Sperm Sperm has a head containing a nucleus Has a long tail to help the sperm to swim towards the egg