Development of Sex Differences and Gender Roles

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Development of Sex Differences and Gender Roles by Mind Map: Development of Sex Differences and Gender Roles

1. Gender Stereotypes and Gender Roles

1.1. Introduction

1.1.1. Gender Stereotypes

1.1.2. Gender Roles

1.1.3. Gender Identity

1.1.4. Gender typing

1.1.5. Instrumental traits; masculine

1.1.6. Expressive traits; feminine

1.1.7. Gender Stereotypes: ingrained in thinking

1.1.8. Adults view children: gender biased lens (Age 2; children absorb these messages)

1.1.8.1. Figure 13.1 (masculinity)

1.1.8.1.1. Adult: greater difference in boys/girls than men and women

1.2. Gender Stereotyping in Early Chlidhood

1.2.1. [1] Between 18 months and 3 years

1.2.1.1. Children label: boy, girl, lady, man

1.2.2. [2] & [3] Before age 2

1.2.2.1. Children: acquire subtle beliefs & gender-stereotypes metaphors

1.2.3. [4] Early childhood: stereotype belief strengthen (rigid beliefs)

1.2.4. [5] Gender label in making judgments

1.2.5. [6] Rigid of preschoolers' gender stereotypes

1.2.6. [7] Conclusion

1.2.6.1. Do no realize characteristics NOT EQUAL person's sex

1.2.6.2. Do not realize: different in body; similar in other ways

1.3. Gender Stereotyping in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

1.3.1. Personality Traits

1.3.1.1. Not until middle childhood, children aware of gender stereotypes

1.3.1.2. Stereotyping of personality traits increases in middle childhood, becoming adult like around age 11

1.3.1.3. In-group favouritism

1.3.1.3.1. Both boys and girls (in-group & out-group) characterize as having both positive and negative qualities

1.3.1.3.2. But see own gender in more positive light

1.3.2. Achievement Areas

1.3.2.1. Entering elementary school

1.3.2.1.1. Figure out which 'academic subjects' and 'skill' are masculine and feminine

1.3.2.2. Some gender-stereotype beliefs about achievement may be changed

1.3.3. Toward Greater Flexiblity

1.3.3.1. More open-minded view of what males and females an do that continues into adolescence

1.3.3.2. Gender-stereotype flexibility

1.3.3.2.1. Figure 13.2

1.3.3.3. Not longer see gender-typed behaviour as inborn and fixed

1.3.3.3.1. See it as 'socially influenced'

1.3.3.4. BUT acknowledging that boys and girls can cross gender lines does not mean that children always approve of doing so

1.3.3.5. Many School-aged

1.3.3.5.1. Take harsh view of certain violations

1.4. Individual and Group Differences in Gender Stereotyping

1.4.1. Individual

1.4.1.1. May be highly knowledgeable in one area without being knowledge in the other

1.4.1.1.1. Flexibility of their beliefs vary greatly from child to child

1.4.2. Group

1.4.2.1. Sex-related

1.4.2.1.1. Boys hold more gender-stereotype views than girls throughout childhood and adolescence

1.4.2.2. Ethnic minorities (i.e. African-American children) hold less stereotype views

1.4.2.2.1. Because less traditional gender roles in African-American families

1.4.2.3. Higher SES individuals hold more flexible gender-stereotyped views than lower SES

1.5. Gender Stereotyping and Gender-Role Adoption

1.5.1. Does Gender-Stereotype thinking influence children's gender-role adoption, thereby restricting their experiences and potential?

1.5.1.1. Well-versed gender-realted expectations = highly gender-typed

1.5.1.2. Stereotype flexibility predictor of = children's gender-role adoption in middle childhood

1.5.1.2.1. Conclusion: Gender stereotypes affect behaviour ONLY = those beliefs into their gender identities

2. Influences on Gender Stereotyping and Gender-Role Adoption

2.1. Biological Influences

2.1.1. How much Cross-Cultural Similarity Exists in Gender Typing?

2.1.1.1. Most societies promote 'instrumental traits' in males & 'expressive traits' in females

2.1.1.1.1. BUT, sometimes great DIVERSITY

2.1.2. Sex Hormones and Gender Typing

2.1.2.1. Are Hormones, which are so pervasively affect body structures, also important in 'gender-role adoption' ?

2.1.2.1.1. Play Styles and Preference for Same-Sex Peers

2.1.2.1.2. Exceptional Sexual Development

2.2. Environmental Influences

2.2.1. Perceptions and Expectations of Adults

2.2.1.1. Parents see qualities that fit baby's artificially assigned sex

2.2.1.1.1. I.e. Rate infants' physical features more than personality treats in 'gender-stereotyped fashion'

2.2.1.2. Parents hold different perceptions and exceptions of sons and daughters

2.2.1.2.1. Want preschoolers to play with 'gender-specific toys'

2.2.1.2.2. Child-rearing perception of SON

2.2.1.2.3. Chid-rearing perception of DAUGHTER

2.2.1.3. Parents respond negatively to idea of 'cross-gender' behaviour

2.2.2. Treatment by Parents

2.2.2.1. Infancy and Early Childhood

2.2.2.1.1. Early as 'first few months' create different environments (gender-specific play activities and behaviour) for boys and girls -- i.e. bedrooms different colour and themes

2.2.2.1.2. Reinforce: Independence in BOYS and closeness and dependency in GIRLS

2.2.2.1.3. Gender-specific play contexts amplify COMMUNICATION differently

2.2.2.1.4. Young children's gender biases often bear little resemblance to those of their parents

2.2.2.2. Middle Childhood and Adolescence

2.2.2.2.1. Issues of achievement become more important to parents

2.2.2.3. Mothers versus Fathers

2.2.2.3.1. Fathers discriminate the most and place more pressure to achieve on son

2.2.2.3.2. Parents committed towards gender typing of children of their own sex

2.2.3. Treatment by Teachers

2.2.3.1. Teachers reinforce both sexes of feminine rather than masculine behaviour

2.2.3.1.1. Bad for BOYS: discomfort

2.2.3.1.2. Even bad for GIRLS: long term consequences of their independence and self-esteem

2.2.3.2. Teachers also maintain and even extend gender roles taught at home

2.2.3.3. Emphasize gender distinctions via "QUOTE" ; promotes: gender stereotyping, in-group favouritism, and out-group prejudice in children

2.2.3.4. Give more overall attentions (positive and negative) to boys than girls

2.2.4. Observational Learning

2.2.4.1. In addition to direct pressures from adults, numerous gender-typed models are available in children's environments

2.2.4.1.1. Study [1] pg 543

2.2.4.2. Media portrays are also gender typed

2.2.4.2.1. I.e. Shows: male orientated and female orientated

2.2.4.3. When children exposed to non stereotyped models (i.e. mothers as washing car & fathers as cooking -- less often endorse gender stereotypes

2.2.4.3.1. In divorced parent environment: children less gender typed, BECASUE less opportunities to observe traditional gender roles two parent house hold

2.2.5. Peers

2.2.5.1. Gender-Role Learning in Gender-Segregated Peer Groups

2.2.5.1.1. By age 3

2.2.5.1.2. Develop different styles of social influences in gender-segregated peer groups

2.2.5.1.3. Over time

2.2.5.1.4. Some believe: forming mixed- sex activity groups - useful in reducing gender stereotyping

2.2.5.2. Cultural Variations

2.2.5.2.1. African-American, Hispanic-American and Caucasian- American VS. Chinese and US

2.2.5.2.2. In collecitivist socieiteis, where group cohesion is highly valued, cdhliren many not feel a need to work as hard at painting same-sex peer relations through traditional interaction patterns

2.2.6. Siblings; affects gender typing

2.2.6.1. Sibling effects are more complex than peer influences because they depend on BIRTH ORDER and FAMILY SIZE

2.2.6.1.1. Older siblings powerful models for younger sibilngs

3. Gender Identity

3.1. Gender Identity: Introduction

3.1.1. Gender Identity: affects gender stereotyping and gender-role behaviour

3.1.2. Researchers measure gender identity via asking children to rate themselves on personality traits

3.1.3. Adrogyny

3.1.4. Gender Identity

3.1.4.1. Good predictor of psychological adjustment

3.1.4.1.1. Masculine + androgynous children = higher self-esteem than feminine individuals

3.1.4.1.2. Androgynous individuals are more adaptable -- able to show masculine independence or feminine sensitive depending on situation

3.2. Emergence of Gender Identity: Introduction

3.2.1. How do children develop gender identity?

3.2.1.1. Social learning perspective

3.2.1.1.1. Behaviour comes before self-perceptions

3.2.1.2. Cognitive-developmental theory

3.2.1.2.1. Self-perceptions come before behaviour

3.2.1.3. Gender constancy

3.3. Emergence of Gender Identity

3.3.1. Development of Gender Constancy

3.3.1.1. Kohlberg

3.3.1.1.1. Proposed that before age 6 and 7, children cannot maintain the constancy of their gender, just as they cannot pass Piagetian conservation problems.

3.3.1.1.2. Development of gender constancy follows [5] sequence

3.3.1.1.3. Mastery of gender constancy related to

3.3.1.1.4. Giving children information about genital differences does not results in gender constancy

3.3.2. How Well Does Gender Constancy Predict Gender-Role Adoption?

3.3.2.1. Is cognitive-developmental theory correct that gender constancy is responsible for children's gender-typed behavior?

3.3.2.1.1. Evidece is weak

3.3.2.2. More informaiton, but you skipped because

3.3.2.2.1. Conclusion: Gender-role adoption is more pwoerfully affected by children's beliefs about how close the connection must be between their own gender and their behaviour

3.4. Gender Identity in Middle Childhood

3.4.1. These changes are due to mixture of cognitive and social forces

3.4.1.1. Identificaion

3.4.1.1.1. Boys's and Girl's gender identities follow different paths (From 3rd to 6th grade)

3.4.1.2. Children's activities (further shows androgynous)

3.4.1.2.1. While boys usually stick to 'masculine' pursuits, girls experiment with wider range of options (i.e. join sports teams, work on science projects) -- girls more likely to purse other gender's career (i.e. firefighter)

3.4.2. Both sexes aware = society attaches greater prestige to 'masculine' characteristics

3.4.2.1. Study ** (Figure 13.8)

3.4.3. Gender identity expands to: (which affects their adjustment)

3.4.3.1. [6] Gender typicality

3.4.3.2. [6] Gender contentedness

3.4.3.3. [6] Felt pressure to conform to gender roles

3.4.3.4. Conclusion: How children feel about themselves in relation to their gender group is important in middle childhood + this who experience rejection because of their gender-atypical traits suffer profoundly

3.4.3.4.1. Gender typical + gender contented children = gained self-esteem

3.4.3.4.2. gender-atypical + gender discontented = decline self-worth

3.5. Gender Identity in Adolescence

3.5.1. Gender intensification

3.5.1.1. Evident stronger in adolescent girls

3.5.1.2. Exhibit gender intensification VIA

3.5.1.2.1. Biological

3.5.1.2.2. Social

3.5.1.2.3. Cognitive factors

3.5.1.3. Gender intensification typically DECLINES by late adolescence

3.5.1.4. Social environment major force in prompting gender role flexibility in adolescence, just as was it at early ages

3.6. Gender Schema Therapy

3.6.1. [7] Gender Schema Theory

3.6.1.1. [8] Gender-stereotyped preferences and behaviours ➟ organize experience into gender schema (masculine and feminine categories) ➟ Select gender schema's consistent with stability + labeling of their own gender ➟ self-perceptions (gender-typed) ➟ serve as additional schemas

3.6.1.1.1. [9] Figure 13.9 ➟ gender-schematic vs gender-aschematic child

4. To What Extent Do Boys and Girls Really Differ in Gender-Stereotyped Attributes? ➽ TABLE 13.2

4.1. Mental Abilities

4.1.1. Verbal Abilities

4.1.2. Mathematical Abilities

4.2. Personality Traits

4.2.1. Emotional Sensitivity

4.2.2. Depression

4.2.3. Aggression

4.2.3.1. Biological Influences

4.2.3.2. Environmental Influences

5. Developing Non-Gender Stereotyped Children