ED 302 Notes

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ED 302 Notes by Mind Map: ED 302 Notes

1. Educational systems in other countries

1.1. Great Britain

1.1.1. five stages of education

1.1.1.1. early years

1.1.1.2. primary

1.1.1.3. secondary

1.1.1.4. further education

1.1.1.5. higher education

1.1.2. highly centralized

1.2. France

1.2.1. highly centralized

1.2.2. 2 public schools include one for ordinary citizens and one for elite society

1.3. Japan

1.3.1. double-schooling

1.4. Germany

1.4.1. sorts children at young age and tracks them and puts them into three catagories

1.5. Finland

1.5.1. highly praised

1.5.2. rigorous teacher education programs

2. Foundations of Education

2.1. 4 issues in Education

2.1.1. Achievement Gaps

2.1.1.1. Social class

2.1.1.2. race/ethnicity

2.1.1.3. gender

2.1.1.4. Poverty in schools

2.1.2. Assesment Issues

2.1.2.1. High Stakes Testing

2.1.3. School Funding

2.1.3.1. staffing crisis

2.1.3.2. only 8% tax from government

2.1.4. Reduction in Literacy

2.1.4.1. adoption of national standards

2.1.4.1.1. common core

2.1.4.2. balancing higher standards

2.1.4.3. development of core curriculum

3. History of U.S. Education

3.1. Benjamin Franklin

3.1.1. believed education isn't something you have to do, but it's something you want to do -- like a privilege

3.1.2. not in favor of traditional education, but believed in new methods of student-led experimentation and learning through experience

3.1.3. favored studying English language instead of classical languages because English is the American language

3.2. 1635 Boston Latin Grammar School (secondary school) established

3.3. 1647 Puritans of New England "Old Deluder Satan Law"

3.3.1. regarded as the historical first step toward compulsory government

3.3.2. directed public education in the United States

3.4. Thomas Jefferson

3.4.1. believed the best safeguard for democracy is literacy

3.4.2. provided free education to all children for the first three years of elementary school

3.5. 1785,1787 Land Ordinance ACT, Northwest Ordinance

3.5.1. every town had a school and had to pay for it through taxes such as property tax

3.6. 1821 Emma Willard's Troy Female seminary opens, first endowed secondary school for girls

3.7. 1821 First Public High School opens in Boston

3.8. 1837 Horace Mann

3.8.1. Secretary of the Board of Education in Massachusetts

3.8.2. politician and educational reformer

3.8.3. argued that universal public education was the best way to turn children into responsible citizens

3.8.4. credited for popularization of "normal schools" that trained professional teachers

3.9. 1855 First Kindergarten in the United States

3.10. 1874 Kalamazoo Case

3.10.1. established the use of taxes to fund public schools

3.11. 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson

3.11.1. landmark United States Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities (such as schools) under the principle of "separate but equal."

3.12. 1919 Progressive Education Programs (promoted hands on, inquiry based learning)

3.13. 1944 G.I. Bill of Rights

3.13.1. provided tuition and/or technical training to soldiers returning from WWII

3.14. 1954 Brown v/ Board of Education

3.14.1. overturned Plessy v. Ferguson

3.14.2. determined that separate was not equal and that segregation in schools and all other public forums was unconstitutional

3.15. 1972 Title IX

3.15.1. prohibited discrimination on the basis of se in public education and federally assisted programs

3.16. 1975 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

3.17. 1983 A nation at Risk

3.18. 2002 No Child Left Behind Act

3.18.1. law passed by George W. Bush in which called for increased school accountibility

4. Sociological Perspectives

4.1. 3 Major Theories about the Relationships Between Schools and Sociology

4.1.1. Functional Theories

4.1.1.1. Functional sociologists assess the interdependence of the social system

4.1.1.2. viewing society as a machine where one part works with another to make society work

4.1.1.3. interprets each part society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole society

4.1.2. Interactional Theories

4.1.2.1. Interactional sociologists take a up close view of the interactions between students/students and teachers/teachers

4.1.2.2. approach to questions about social cognition, or how one understands other people, that focuses on behaviors and environmental contexts rather than on mental processes or academic achievement

4.1.3. Conflict Theories

4.1.3.1. assert that society is not held together by shared values alone, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups (the glue of society is economic, cultural, and political

4.1.3.2. Marxist-based social theory which argues that social classes within society have differing amounts of material and non-material resources (such as wealthy vs. the poor

4.1.3.3. inequality exists because those in control of a disproportionate share of society's resources actively defend their advantages

4.2. Influences of the School

4.2.1. Tracking

4.2.1.1. entire school population is assigned to classes according to whether the students' overall achievement is above average, normal, or below average

4.2.2. De Facto Segregation

4.2.2.1. Racial segregation, especially in public schools, that happens "by fact" rather than by legal requirement

4.2.3. Schools reinforce larger cultural messages about gender, including the idea that gender is an essential characteristic for organizing social life

4.2.4. Effects of Schooling impact

4.2.4.1. knowledge/attitudes

4.2.4.2. employment

4.2.4.3. education

4.2.4.4. social mobility

4.3. Inadequate Schools

4.3.1. Overcrowding, poor physical condition of the buildings, and lack of supplies/materials for the teachers and students

4.4. Sociology of Education

4.4.1. purpose is to focus on the influence of schooling on equity and opportunity for students

4.4.2. Schools serve as "gatekeepers" of knowledge and skill, ad provide students with economic and social worth in the world of employment

5. Philosophy of Education

5.1. Idealism/Perennialism

5.1.1. Teacher-led

5.1.2. traditional

5.1.3. focuses on classical literature and shuns textbooks

5.1.4. electives are viewed as unnecessary

5.1.5. Theorists: Robert Hutchins and Mortimer Adler

5.1.6. curriculum follows the "Great Books"

5.2. Neo-Marxism/Social-Constructivism

5.2.1. student-led

5.2.2. focus on better society

5.2.3. flexible, integrated curriculum

5.2.4. social awareness

5.2.5. creates problem solvers

5.2.6. Theorists: Paulo Freire

5.3. Realism/Essentialism

5.3.1. Teacher-led

5.3.2. Traditional

5.3.3. Back to basics

5.3.4. Direct instruction

5.3.5. Orderly classroom environment

5.3.6. Theorists: William Bagley and E.D. Hurst

5.3.7. Syllogism - a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning

5.3.8. Emperical point of view

5.4. Pragmatism/Progressivism

5.4.1. Student-led

5.4.2. Inquiry method of learning

5.4.3. Group/collaborative learning

5.4.4. learning by doing

5.4.5. project-based learning

5.4.6. Theorists: John Dewey and Nel Noddings

5.4.7. Real world experiences

5.4.8. teachers are facilitators

5.5. Existentialism

5.5.1. Student-led

5.5.2. students choose own pace of learning

5.5.3. students grade/evaluate themselves

5.5.4. shuns traditional curriculum

5.5.5. individuality

5.5.6. Phenemology

5.5.7. Hermunietics

5.5.8. purpose to find measuring of their lives

6. Schools as Organizations

6.1. school processes refer to the way in which school cultures are created and maintained

6.2. Decentralized school system

6.2.1. each state maintains its autonomy, authority, and responsibility regarding education

6.3. Consolidation and Centralization of Schools

6.3.1. during the past 80 years schools in the U.S. have consolidated so that education is more efficient and cost effective

6.3.2. negative impact of consolidation = less diverse, more bureaucratic and less democratic

6.4. De Facto

6.4.1. racial segregation, which happens "by fact" rathar than by legal requirements

6.5. Willard Waller

6.5.1. educational sociologist, assured that schools are separate social organizations due to:

6.5.1.1. schools have a definite population

6.5.1.2. schools have a clearly defined political structure

6.5.1.3. schools represent a central network of social relationships

6.5.1.4. schools are permeated with "we" ideal rather than a "me" ideal

6.5.1.5. schools each have a definite culture that is specific to the individual school

6.6. Max Weber

6.6.1. asserted that schools are social organizations that are bureaucratic in nature

6.7. No Child Left Behind Act

7. Curriculum & Pedagogy

7.1. Four types of Curriculum

7.1.1. Humanist

7.1.1.1. idealist philosophy

7.1.1.2. knowledge of the traditional liberal arts as the basis of an educated society

7.1.1.3. purpose of education is to present students the best of what has ever been though or written

7.1.2. Social/Efficiency

7.1.2.1. pragmatic/progressive in nature

7.1.2.2. belief that different groups of students have different needs, and should receive different types of education to meet those specific needs

7.1.3. Developmentalism

7.1.3.1. based on progressive educational practices

7.1.3.2. John Dewey and Jean Piaget emphasized the importance of the process of teaching and curricular content

7.1.3.3. curriculum focuses on needs and interests of each individual child at each of the particular developmental stages

7.1.4. Social Meliorist

7.1.4.1. based on the social re-constructionist theory

7.1.4.2. schools should work to change society and help solve fundamental social problems

7.2. Traditional approaches

7.2.1. view curriculum as objective bodies of knowledge and examine ways in which this knowledge may be designed, taught, and evaluated

7.3. curriculum approaches to curriculum focus on designing curriculum around goals and objectives, and to assess it in terms of student learning

7.4. Influences on curriculum

7.4.1. Pluralist Model of Political Power:

7.4.1.1. argues that the political system in the U.S. is not controlled by any one influence and control

7.4.2. Political Elite Model

7.4.2.1. argues that a small number of powerful groups dominate the political landscape and have disproportionate control over decision making

7.5. Sociology of Curriculum

7.5.1. Functionalist Theory

7.5.1.1. role of curriculum is to give students the knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability, to further the common social order

7.5.2. Conflict theory

7.5.2.1. theorists believe curriculum is a reflection of ideology

7.5.2.2. they don't believe that schools teach liberal values such as tolerance and respect

7.5.3. "Hidden Curriculum"

7.5.3.1. includes norms which are taught to students through implicit rules and messages, but is not written in the official curriculum

7.5.3.2. Examples: learning how to walk in line, how to address teachers, etc

7.5.4. "Null Curriculum"

7.5.4.1. is specifically omitted from being taught in schools

7.6. Traditions in Pedagogic Practices:

7.6.1. Mimetic Tradition

7.6.1.1. based on the view that the purpose of education is to relay specific knowledge to students

7.6.1.2. practice uses the didactic method of teaching which relies heavily on lectures or presentations as the main form of communication

7.6.2. Transformative Tradition

7.6.2.1. purpose of education as having the ability to change each student in a meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally

7.6.3. Dialectic teaching

7.6.3.1. means of communication in this approach to curriculum, with the use of questioning and question/answer sessions as the main vehicle to transmit knowledge

8. Equality of Opportunity

8.1. Caste Stratification

8.1.1. occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of social strict criteria such as race or religion

8.2. Estate Stratification

8.2.1. occurs in societies where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family worth

8.3. Class Stratification

8.3.1. occurs in industrial societies where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals, especially in economic pursuits

8.4. Social Stratification in the U.S.

8.4.1. Upper Class: 1-3% of population

8.4.2. Upper Middle Class: 15% population

8.4.3. Lower Middle Class: 25% population

8.4.4. Working Class: 40% population

8.4.5. Underclass/Lower Class: 20% population

8.5. Achievement Gap

8.5.1. refers to the observed, persistent disparity of educational measures between the performance of groups of students,

8.5.2. Females achieve at higher levels in reading at ages 9, 13, 17 but achieve lower levels in science at ages 9, 13, 17

8.6. The Coleman Report

8.6.1. influential and controversial study, that was based on extensive survey of educational opportunity was mandated in the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and directed by the sociologist James Coleman

8.6.2. often misinterpreted as an argument that 'schools don't matter, only families matter'

8.6.3. subsequent work was designed to help identify the characteristics of schools which did matter, so that the impact of school relative to that of family could be increased

9. Education Inequality

9.1. Functionalist Vision

9.1.1. "just society"

9.1.2. one where individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation

9.1.3. expect that the process of schooling will produce unequal results, but that the results should be due to individual differences between students, not on group differences

9.2. Conflict theorists

9.2.1. believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality

9.3. Interventionist theory

9.3.1. we must understand how people within institutions such as families or schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure

9.3.2. Student Centered or Extra-School

9.3.3. School Centered or Within-School

9.4. 3 Controversial Perspectives

9.4.1. Genetic/Biological Differences Theory

9.4.2. Cultural Deprivation

9.4.3. Cultural Differences

9.5. Characteristics of Effective Schools

9.5.1. High expectations for students by teachers and administrators

9.5.2. strong, effective leadership by school administration

9.5.3. Accountability processes for both students and teachers

9.5.4. Close monitoring of student learning

9.5.5. High degree of instructional time on task

9.5.6. Flexibility for teachers to adapt to new situations and solve problems

10. Education Reform

10.1. First Wave in the U.S. stressed the need for increased educational excellence through increased educational standards

10.1.1. need for excellence and equity

10.1.2. need to clarify educational goals

10.1.3. need to develop common core

10.1.4. need to eliminate tracking programs

10.1.5. need for major changes in vocational education

10.1.6. need for education to teach about technology

10.1.7. need to increase duration and intensity of academic learning

10.1.8. needs to recruit, train, and retain more academically able teachers

10.2. Second wave was based on recommendations made at the State Governor's Conference

10.2.1. teaching, leadership, and management

10.2.2. parent involvement and choice in schools

10.2.3. student readiness for school (preschool)

10.2.4. school facilities being fully utilized

10.2.5. quality colleges and accountability for learning

10.2.6. The Carnegie report entitled A Nation Prepared

10.2.6.1. teachers for a 21st Century focused on the educational quality of teacher education programs. It asserted:

10.2.6.1.1. teacher education programs lacked rigor and intellectual demands which would negatively impact success and student achievement in schools

10.2.6.1.2. necessity to reorganize the academic and professional components of teacher education programs

10.2.6.1.3. need to attract and retain competent teacher candidates

10.3. Goals 2000:

10.3.1. All children will start school ready to learn

10.3.2. High school graduation rates will increase to at least 90%

10.3.3. American students will leave grades 4, 8, 12, having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter so that they would be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy

10.3.4. U.S. students will be first in the world in math and science

10.3.5. every adult American will be literate and will possess the skills necessary to compete in a global economy

10.3.6. every school in America will be free of drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined environment conducive learning

10.4. No Child Let Behind

10.4.1. Annual testing required of students in grades 3 - 8 in reading and math

10.4.2. required to report test performance

10.4.3. adequate yearly progress goals

10.4.4. schools that don't meet AYP for 2 years are labeled "in need of improvement"

10.4.5. schools must have "highly qualified teachers" for teachers in the core academic subjects

10.5. Race to the Top

10.5.1. adopt standards and assessments that prepare students to succeed in college and the workplace and to compete in global economy

10.5.2. building data systems that measure student growth and success and inform teachers and principals about how they can improve instruction

10.5.3. recruiting, developing, rewarding, and retaining effective teachers and principals

11. Politics of Education

11.1. Conservative

11.1.1. Originates from 1800's

11.1.2. Social Darwinism

11.1.3. Individuals must compete in social environment to survive

11.1.4. human progress is dependent on individual initiative and hard work

11.1.5. free market economy of capitalism is viewed as the most productive economic system

11.1.6. traditionalist

11.1.6.1. schools are necessary for transmission of traditional United States values in society

11.1.6.1.1. hard work

11.1.6.1.2. individual initiative

11.1.6.1.3. family unity

11.1.7. see the role of school as providing educational training to ensure talented and hardworking students receive the tools to maximize economic and social productivity

11.2. Liberal

11.3. Radical

11.4. Neo-liberal