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Alkenes by Mind Map: Alkenes

1. C=C bond present in each monomer

2. e.g.

2.1. ethene to ethanol

2.1.1. C2H4 + H2O -> C2H5OH

3. 5 atm

4. 200°C

5. is the addition of steam

6. usually colourless

7. Ni (nickel) catalyst

8. ethanol is used as solvent and fuel

9. C18H38 -> C6H14 + 6C2H4 big alkane-> alkane+six alkenes

10. production of HYDROGEN gas

10.1. C18H38 -> 9C2H4 + H2

11. through cracking of alkanes

12. Cracking

12.1. conversion of long chains of hydrocarbons to shorter chains

12.2. Pertroleum(crude oil)

12.2.1. big hydrocarbon molecules in it broken down to smaller hydrocarbon molecules

12.2.2. smaller hydrocarbon molecules used for fuel

12.2.3. e.g.

12.2.3.1. C18H38 -> C8H18 + C10H20 big alkane -> alkane+alkene

12.2.3.1.1. usually, a mixture of alkenes AND alkanes is produced

12.2.3.2. OR

13. Halogenation

13.1. CONDITIONS

13.1.1. H3PO4 (phosphoric acid) catalyst

13.1.2. 300°C

13.1.3. 60 atm

13.2. is the addition of halogens

13.3. CONDITIONS

13.3.1. room temperature

13.3.2. halogens as reagents

13.4. e.g.

13.4.1. C2H4(g) + Cl2(g) -> C2H4Cl2 (l)

13.5. product

14. Hydration

14.1. product

14.1.1. alcohol

15. Hydrogenation

15.1. e.g.

15.1.1. ethene to ethane

15.1.1.1. C2H4 + H2 -> C2H6

15.1.2. vegetable oil to margarine

15.1.3. is the addition of hydrogen

16. Alkenes are compounds containing a Carbon-Carbon double bond.

17. production of ETHENE

17.1. to make ehtanol and plastics(polyethene)

17.2. in the absence of light

18. CONDITIONS

19. Alkenes are insoluable in water, however are very soluble in organic solvents.

19.1. general formula

19.1.1. CnH2n