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Alkenes by Mind Map: Alkenes

1. Alkenes are compounds containing a Carbon-Carbon double bond.

2. ethene to ethane

2.1. C2H4 + H2 -> C2H6

3. 60 atm

4. product

4.1. e.g.

4.1.1. C2H4(g) + Cl2(g) -> C2H4Cl2 (l)

5. CONDITIONS

5.1. room temperature

5.2. halogens as reagents

6. C=C bond present in each monomer

7. e.g.

7.1. ethene to ethanol

7.1.1. C2H4 + H2O -> C2H5OH

8. 5 atm

9. 200°C

10. usually colourless

11. Ni (nickel) catalyst

12. ethanol is used as solvent and fuel

13. C18H38 -> C6H14 + 6C2H4 big alkane-> alkane+six alkenes

14. production of HYDROGEN gas

14.1. C18H38 -> 9C2H4 + H2

15. through cracking of alkanes

16. Cracking

16.1. conversion of long chains of hydrocarbons to shorter chains

16.2. Pertroleum(crude oil)

16.2.1. big hydrocarbon molecules in it broken down to smaller hydrocarbon molecules

16.2.2. smaller hydrocarbon molecules used for fuel

16.2.2.1. C18H38 -> C8H18 + C10H20 big alkane -> alkane+alkene

16.2.2.1.1. usually, a mixture of alkenes AND alkanes is produced

16.2.3. e.g.

16.2.3.1. OR

17. Halogenation

17.1. CONDITIONS

17.1.1. H3PO4 (phosphoric acid) catalyst

17.1.2. 300°C

17.2. is the addition of halogens

18. Hydration

18.1. product

18.1.1. alcohol

18.2. is the addition of steam

19. Hydrogenation

19.1. e.g.

19.1.1. vegetable oil to margarine

19.1.2. is the addition of hydrogen

20. production of ETHENE

20.1. to make ehtanol and plastics(polyethene)

20.2. in the absence of light

21. CONDITIONS

22. Alkenes are insoluable in water, however are very soluble in organic solvents.

22.1. general formula

22.1.1. CnH2n