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Alkenes by Mind Map: Alkenes
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Alkenes

production of HYDROGEN gas

C18H38 -> 9C2H4 + H2

through cracking of alkanes

Cracking

conversion of long chains of hydrocarbons to shorter chains

Pertroleum(crude oil)

big hydrocarbon molecules in it broken down to smaller hydrocarbon molecules

smaller hydrocarbon molecules used for fuel

usually, a mixture of alkenes AND alkanes is produced

e.g., C18H38 -> C8H18 + C10H20 big alkane -> alkane+alkene, OR, C18H38 -> C6H14 + 6C2H4 big alkane-> alkane+six alkenes

Halogenation

CONDITIONS

H3PO4 (phosphoric acid) catalyst

300°C

60 atm

is the addition of halogens

CONDITIONS

in the absence of light

room temperature

halogens as reagents

e.g.

C2H4(g) + Cl2(g) -> C2H4Cl2 (l)

product

usually colourless

Hydration

is the addition of steam

e.g.

ethene to ethanol, C2H4 + H2O -> C2H5OH, ethanol is used as solvent and fuel

product

alcohol

Hydrogenation

is the addition of hydrogen

e.g.

ethene to ethane, C2H4 + H2 -> C2H6

vegetable oil to margarine

Alkenes are compounds containing a Carbon-Carbon double bond.

production of ETHENE

to make ehtanol and plastics(polyethene)

CONDITIONS

Ni (nickel) catalyst

200°C

5 atm

Alkenes are insoluable in water, however are very soluble in organic solvents.

general formula

CnH2n

CONDITIONS

C=C bond present in each monomer