Matthew Crowe ED 302 Fall 2015

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Matthew Crowe ED 302 Fall 2015 by Mind Map: Matthew Crowe ED 302 Fall 2015

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative

1.1.1. Traditionalist

1.1.1.1. Argue that individuals rise or fall on their own intelligence, hard work, and initiative. Achievement is based on hard work

1.1.2. Believe in the back to the basics, a return to traditional curriculum, and accountability for studnets and schools

1.1.3. Believe educational problems stem from a decline of standards, decline of cultural literacy, decline of values, and declineof authority

1.1.4. Believe the role of schools os to provide necessary educational training to ensure that hard working individuals receive the tools they need for sucess

1.2. Perspective

1.2.1. Liberal

1.2.1.1. free market, if left unregulated, is prone to abuses, to those groups who are disadvantaged economically and politically

1.2.2. Neo-Liberal

1.2.2.1. synthesis of conservative and liberal perspectives

1.2.2.1.1. this agenda has become an important feature of official federal, state, and local policy

1.2.3. Radical

1.2.3.1. believes that democratic socialism is a fairer political economic system

1.2.3.1.1. does not like free market economy

1.2.3.2. capitalist system is central to U.S. social problems

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Reform Movement

2.1.1. 2002 No Child Left behind

2.1.1.1. Standardized Tersting

2.1.1.2. Increased Accountability

2.1.2. "Common Core"

2.2. 1896 Plessy vs. ferguson

2.2.1. "Separate but equal"

2.3. 1954 Brown vs. BOE

2.3.1. Repealed Plessy vs. Ferguson

2.3.2. Court ruling was the basis for desegregation in schools

2.4. Historical

2.4.1. 1821 first public high school

2.4.2. 1855 first Kindergarden in the US

2.4.3. 1972 Title IX Prohibited the discrimination on the basis of sex

2.4.4. 1975 individuals with disabilities

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Functional Theories

3.1.1. Assess the interdependence of the social system; viewing society as a machine where one part works with another to make society work

3.2. Interactional Theories

3.2.1. Interactional sociologists take a up close view of the interactions between students/ students

3.3. Conflict Theories

3.3.1. Schools are social battle field

3.3.1.1. Karl Marx (1818-1883

3.3.1.1.1. believed that education made class struggle inevitable

3.3.1.2. Max Weber (1864-1920)

3.3.1.2.1. critical awareness of how bureaucracy was becoming the dominate type of authority in the modern state and how bureaucratic ways of thinking were bound to shape education.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Realism

4.1.1. Essentailism

4.1.1.1. Teacher led classroom, Traditional, back to the basics, Direct Instruction, Orderly Classroom, Tabula Rasa= Blank slate

4.1.1.1.1. William Bogley

4.2. Idealism

4.2.1. Teacher led classroom, Traditional, Focuses on the classic Literature, SHUNS TEXTBOOKS, electives are viewed as unnesessary

4.2.1.1. Robert Hutchins

4.2.1.2. Mortimer Adler

4.2.2. Perennialism

4.3. Pragmatism

4.3.1. Student led classroom, Inquiry method of learning, Group/ Collaborative, learning by doing, Project based learning.

4.3.1.1. John Dewey

4.3.1.2. Nel Nodding

4.3.2. Progressivism

4.4. Neo-Marxism

4.4.1. Student led classroom, focus on bettering society, flexible integrated curriculum, social awereness, creates problem solves

4.4.2. Social-Reconstruction

4.5. Existentialism

4.5.1. Student led classroom, students choose own pace of learning, students grade, shuns traditional, Individuality and introspection

4.5.1.1. WOOL CHICKENS

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Schools have a definite population

5.2. Schools have a clearly defined political structure

5.3. schools respresent a central network of social relationship

5.4. Great Britain and France have highly centralized education systems

5.4.1. U.S. has used Consolidation. The past 80 years schools have consolidated so edu. is more efficient and cost effective.

5.5. Schools are permeated with "we" ideal rather than "me"

5.6. Schools each have a definite culture that is specific to the individual school

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Social Efficiency Curriculum is progressive/pragmatic in nature with the people of different students have different needs

6.2. The Humanist Curriculum is based of the idealist philosophy that knowledge pf the traditional liberal arts as the basis of an educated society

6.3. Develeopmentalist Curriculum is also based on progressive education practices. Needs and interest change at stages of development.

6.3.1. John Dewey

6.3.2. Jean Piaget

6.4. Social Meliorist Curriculum is based on the social reconstructionist Theory that schools should work to change society and help solve fundamental social problems

6.5. Influences on Curriculum

6.5.1. Purist Model of Political power

6.5.2. Political elite model

6.6. The Sociology of Curriculum

6.6.1. Functionalist Theory

6.6.1.1. The role of the curriculum is to give students knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability , to further the common social order

6.6.2. Conflict Theory

6.6.2.1. They do not believe that schools teach liberal values such as tolerance and respect

6.6.3. The "Hidden' Curriculum

6.6.3.1. Includes the norms and implicit rules and messages

6.6.4. The "Null" Curriculum

6.6.4.1. is the curriculum that is specifically omitted from being taught

6.6.5. Mainstream Curriculum

6.6.5.1. that is intentionally taught

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Class

7.1.1. Students from different social classes have different kinds of educational experiences. Studies show that the number of books in a families home is related ti the academic achievement of its children. Middle and upper class children are more likely to speak standard English

7.2. Race

7.2.1. Despite the Civil Rights legislation of the 1960's US society is still highly stratified by race. An individuals race has a direct impact on how much education he or she is likely to achieve. That race is related to educational outcomes is undeniable, although, given nature of US society, it is extremely difficult to separate race from class

7.3. the evolution of the US education system is a story that is profoundly moving because it is a narrative of struggle. The United States has only been partially successful in developing an education system that is truly meritocratic and just.These forms of stratification negatively impact on the mobility of certain individuals and groups. Thought the 1980's the emphasis on education reform focused on competition and excellence. In a society that is increasingly multicultural we must reform in a way that focuses on cooperation and equity.

7.4. Gender

7.4.1. Historically, an individuals gender was directly related to the amount of his or her educational attainment. Even though women are often rated as being better students than men, in the past they were less likely to attain the same level of education. In the last 20, years gender differences between men and women, in terms of educational attainment, have been reduced.

7.5. Coleman study

7.5.1. Round one was in 1966

7.5.2. Round two was in 1982

7.5.3. Round three was forty years after 1&2

7.5.3.1. Geoffrey Borman & Marttza Dowiling

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Funtctionalist

8.1.1. Visions of a "just society" is one where individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation.

8.1.1.1. Expect that the process of schooling will produce unequal results, but that the results should be due to individual differences between students, not on a group differences.

8.2. Conflict Theorists

8.2.1. believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality

8.2.1.1. (This assertion is consistent with data that shows educational outcome that are strongly linked to family background)

8.3. Interactionist

8.3.1. Theory suggest that we must understand how people within institutions such as families and schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure.

8.4. Student Centered

8.4.1. Extra School explainioations of inequalities focus on factors outside of school such as family, the community, culture, peer groups, and the individual student

8.4.2. Within school explanations of inequalities focus on factors within the school such as teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, ability grouping, school climate and teacher expectations

8.5. Characteristics of Effective Schools

8.5.1. High expectaions

8.5.2. Strong effective leadership

8.5.3. Accountability

8.5.4. Close monitoring of student learning

8.5.5. Time on task

8.5.6. Flexibility for teachers

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Nation at risk

9.1.1. The first wave of education reform in the united states stressed the need for increased educational excellence through increased educational standards.

9.1.1.1. The need for excellence and equity

9.1.1.2. the need to clarify educational goals

9.1.1.3. the need to develop a common core

9.1.1.4. eliminate tracking programs

9.1.1.5. major changes in vocational education

9.1.1.6. teach about technology

9.1.1.7. increase duration and intensity of academic learning

9.1.1.8. the need to recruit,train, and retain more academically able teachers

9.1.2. the Second wave of reform was based on the recommendations made at the State Governors Conference

9.1.2.1. Teaching leadership and management

9.1.2.2. Parental involvement and choice in schools

9.1.2.3. Student Readiness for schools and preschoolers

9.1.2.4. School facilities being fully utilized

9.1.2.5. quality colleges and accountability for learning

9.2. Goals 2000

9.2.1. Goal 1-- all children will start school ready to learn

9.2.2. Goal 2-- high school graduation rates will increase to 90%

9.2.3. Goal 3-- American students will leave grades 4,8, 12 having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter so that they would be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy.

9.2.4. Goal 4-- U.S. Students will be the first in the world in Math and science achivement

9.2.5. Goal 5-- every American adult will be literate and will possess the skills necessary to compete in a global economy

9.2.6. Goal 6-- Every school in America will be free of Drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined environment to learning

9.3. No Child Left Behind

9.3.1. Annual testing required of students in grades 3-8 in reading and math,plus at least one test in grades 10-12 with science testing. Graduation rates are used as a secondary indicator for high schools

9.3.2. States and districts are required ti report school by school data on student test performance broken out by race and special needs, low income

9.3.3. States must set Adequate yearly progress goals for each school

9.3.4. Schools must have highly qualified teachers for teachers in the core academic subjects

9.4. Suggestions for reforms

9.4.1. turing around the lowest achieving schools

9.4.2. Recruiting developing , rewarding and retaining effective teachers and principals

9.4.3. building data systems that measure student growth and success and inform teachers and principals about how they can improve instruction

10. Foundations of education

10.1. 4 issues of Education

10.1.1. Poverty in schools

10.1.1.1. Socio-economic status

10.1.2. Reducation in Literacy

10.1.3. Assessment Issues

10.1.3.1. High Stakes testing

10.1.4. School Funding

10.1.4.1. Less government funding

10.1.4.2. Less teachers in the classroom

10.1.4.3. Less technology for certain schools