My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Educational Reform

1.1. A Nation at Risk

1.1.1. First Wave

1.1.1.1. Stressed the need for increased educational excellence through increased educational standards

1.1.1.2. The need for excellence and equity in schools

1.1.1.3. The need to clarify educatinal goals

1.1.1.4. The need to develop a common core curriculum

1.1.1.5. The need to eliminate tracking programs

1.1.1.6. The need for major changes in vocational education

1.1.1.7. The need for education to teach about technology

1.1.1.8. The need to increase duration and intensity of academic learning

1.1.1.9. The needs to recruit, train, and retain more academically able teachers

1.1.2. Second Wave

1.1.2.1. Based on the recommendations made at the State's Governor's Conference

1.1.2.2. Focused on teaching, leadership, and management

1.1.2.3. Focused on parental involvement and choice in schools

1.1.2.4. Focused on student readiness for school (for preschoolers)

1.1.2.5. Focused on school facilities being fully utilized

1.1.2.6. Focused on quality colleges and accountability for learning

1.1.2.7. Carnegie report entitled A Nation Prepared: Teachers for a 21st Century focused on the educational quality of teacher education programs

1.1.2.7.1. Teacher education programs lacked rigor and intellectual demand which would negatively impact success and student achievement in schools

1.1.2.7.2. The necessity to reorganize the academic and professional components of teacher education programs

1.1.2.7.3. The need to attract and retain competent teacher candidates

1.2. Goals 2000

1.2.1. Goal 1: All children will start school ready to learn

1.2.2. Goal 2: High school graduation rates will increase to at least 90%

1.2.3. Goal 3: American students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12, having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter so that they would be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy

1.2.4. Goal 4: US students will be first in the world in math and science achievement

1.2.5. Goal 5: Every adult American will be literate and will possess the skills necessary to compete in a global economy

1.2.6. Goal 6: Every school in America will be free of drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning

1.3. No Child Left Behind

1.3.1. Annual testing required of students in grades 3 through 8 in reading and math, plus at least one test in grades 10 through 12 with science testing

1.3.2. States and districts are required to report school by school data on student test performance, broken out by whether the student is African American, Hispanic American, Native American, Asian American, white non-Hispanic, special education, limited English proficiency, and/or low income

1.3.3. States must set adequate yearly progress (AYP) goals for each school

1.3.4. Schools that don't meet AYP for two years are labeled "In Need of Improvement"

1.3.5. Schools must have "highly qualified teachers" for teachers in the core academic subjects

2. Politics of Education

2.1. Neo-liberal

2.2. Radical

2.3. Liberal

2.3.1. Progressivism

2.3.2. Concerned with equality and balancing the economic productivity of capitalism

2.3.3. Students should have equal opportunity to succeed in society

2.3.4. Positive view of US society and social problems

2.3.5. Students begin school with different life chances

2.3.5.1. Schools limit the chances of poor and minority children

2.3.5.2. Some groups have significantly more advantages than others

2.3.6. Support quality

2.3.6.1. Equality

2.3.6.2. Effective research

2.3.6.3. Enhanced opportunities for disadvantaged groups

2.3.6.4. More culturally diverse curriculum

2.3.6.5. Balance between performance standards and ensuring students can meet them

2.4. Conservative

3. History of U.S. Education

3.1. 17th Century

3.1.1. 1687-1690 New England Primer was the first reading textbook designed for the American Colonies.

3.1.2. 1636 Harvard College established

3.2. 18th Century

3.2.1. Development of a national interest in education, state responsibility for education, and growth in secondary education

3.2.2. 1751 Franklin Academy opened in Philidelphia

3.3. 19th Century

3.3.1. 1821 Emma Willard's Troy female seminary opens

3.3.1.1. First endowed secondary school for girls

3.3.2. 1821 First Public High School opens in Boston

3.3.3. 1855 First kindergarten in the U.S.

3.3.4. 1874 Kalamazoo Case

3.3.4.1. Established the use of taxes to fund public schools

3.4. 20th Century

3.4.1. Increasing federal support for educational rights of underachieving students

3.4.2. Increased federal funding of specific educational programs

3.4.3. 1932 Roosevelt's New Deal Educational Programs

3.4.4. 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education

3.4.4.1. The Supreme Court reversed the "separate but equal" doctrine enshrined in the Plessy case

3.4.4.2. Separate educational institutions are unequal in and of themselves

3.4.5. 1983 A Nation at Risk

3.4.6. 2002 No Child Left Behind

4. Sociological Perspectives

4.1. Theories

4.1.1. Functional

4.1.1.1. Functional sociologists assess the interdependence of the social system

4.1.1.2. View society as a machine where one part works with another to make society work

4.1.1.3. Interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole society

4.1.2. Interactional

4.1.2.1. Interactional sociologists take an up close view of the interactions between students/students and teachers/teachers

4.1.2.2. An approach to questions about social cognition, or how one understands other people, that focuses on behaviors and environmental contexts rather than on mental processes or academic achievement

4.1.3. Conflict

4.1.3.1. Conflict sociologists assert that society is not held together by shared values alone

4.1.3.2. On the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups

4.1.3.3. Social conflict theory is a Marxist-based social theory which argues that social classes within society have differing amounts of material and non-material resources

4.1.3.4. Inequality exists because those in control of a disproportionate share of society's resources actively defend their advantages

4.2. Influences

4.2.1. The effects of schooling impact: knowledge/attitudes, employment, education and social mobility

4.2.2. In a tracking system, the entire school population in assigned to classes according to whether the students' overall achievement is above average, normal, or below average

4.2.3. De Facto Segregation: Racial segregation, especially in public schools, that happens "by fact" rather than by legal requirement

4.2.4. Schools reinforce larger cultural messages about gender, including the idea that gender is an essential characteristic for organizing social life

5. Philosophy of Education

5.1. Realism

5.1.1. Teacher led

5.1.2. Traditional

5.1.3. Back to basics

5.1.4. Direct instruction

5.1.5. Orderly classroom environment

5.1.6. Empirical points of view

5.1.7. Core curriculum

5.2. Idealism

5.2.1. Teacher led

5.2.2. Focus on classic literature

5.2.3. Shuns textbooks

5.2.4. No electives

5.3. Pragmatism

5.3.1. Student led

5.3.2. Learning by doing

5.3.2.1. Project based learning

5.3.2.2. Inquiry method of learning

5.3.2.3. Group/collaborative learning

5.3.3. Teacher is facilitator

5.4. Neo-Marxism

5.4.1. Student led

5.4.2. Focus to better society

5.4.3. Flexible, integrated curriculum

5.4.4. Social awareness

5.4.5. Creates problem solvers

5.5. Existentialism

5.5.1. Student led

5.5.2. Students grade/evaluate themselves

5.5.3. Shuns traditional curriculum

5.5.4. Individuality and introspection

6. Schools as Organizations

6.1. Educational Systems in Other Countries

6.1.1. Great Britain

6.1.1.1. Five Stages of Education

6.1.1.1.1. Early Years

6.1.1.1.2. Primary

6.1.1.1.3. Secondary

6.1.1.1.4. Further Education

6.1.1.1.5. Higher Education

6.1.1.2. Highly centralized national curriculum and system of national assessment

6.1.2. France

6.1.2.1. Highly centralized education system

6.1.2.2. Schools are highly stratified

6.1.2.3. Two public school stystems

6.1.2.3.1. Ordinary citizens

6.1.2.3.2. Elite society

6.1.3. Japan

6.1.3.1. Double Schooling

6.1.3.2. Traditional public school

6.1.3.3. Informal school called the "study institution" (Juku)

6.1.4. Germany

6.1.4.1. Sorts children at a young age and tracks them into a three part system of secondary education

6.1.4.2. Education systems

6.1.4.2.1. Blue collar or service positions

6.1.4.2.2. Lower white collar positions

6.1.4.2.3. Academic preparation for high level professions

6.1.5. Finland

6.1.5.1. Highly praised for providing students a superior education

6.1.5.2. High test scores

6.1.5.3. Emphasis on formative assessment rather than standardized tests

6.1.5.4. Elimination of tracking

6.1.5.5. Focus on all students achieving a high level of academic success

6.1.5.6. Rigorous teacher education programs

6.2. Decentralized school system

6.2.1. Each state maintains its autonomy, authority, and responsibility regarding education

6.2.2. Federal government has very little input regarding individual schools

6.3. Consolidation and Centralization of Schools

6.3.1. United States have consolidated so that education is more efficient and cost effective

6.3.2. Schools have become less diverse, more bureaucratic, and less democratic

6.4. Willard Waller

6.4.1. Education sociologist

6.4.2. Schools have a definite population

6.4.3. Schools have a clearly defined political structure

6.4.4. Schools represent a central network of social relationships

6.4.5. Schools are permeated with a "we" ideal rather than a "me" ideal

6.4.6. Schools each have a definite culture that is specific to the individual school

6.5. Max Weber

6.5.1. Schools are social organizations that are bureaucratic in nature

6.5.2. Bureaucracies are an endeavor to organize human behavior in order to achieve specific goals

6.6. No Child Left Behind Act - teachers must be highly qualified through meeting 3 qualifications

6.6.1. Hold a college degree

6.6.2. Full certification in field of study

6.6.3. Demonstrable knowledge of academic content in the field of study/certification

7. Curriculum and Pedagogy

7.1. Types of Curriculum

7.1.1. Humanistic

7.1.1.1. Based on the idealist philosophy

7.1.1.2. Knowledge of the traditional liberal arts as the basis of an educated society

7.1.1.3. Present students the best of what has ever been thought or written

7.1.2. Social Efficiency

7.1.2.1. Pragmatic/progressive in nature

7.1.2.2. Different groups of students have different needs

7.1.2.3. Students should receive different types of education to meet specific needs

7.1.3. Developmental

7.1.3.1. Based on progressive educational practices

7.1.3.2. John Dewey and Jean Piaget emphasized the importance of the process of teaching along with the curricular content

7.1.3.3. Focuses on the needs and interests of each individual child at each of the particular developmental stages

7.1.4. Social Meliorist

7.1.4.1. Based on the social reconstructionist theory

7.1.4.2. Schools should work together to change society and help solve fundamental social problems

7.2. Sociology of Curriculum

7.2.1. Functionalist Theory

7.2.1.1. Give students the knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability

7.2.1.2. Further the common social order

7.2.2. Conflict Theory

7.2.2.1. Curriculum is a reflection of ideology

7.2.2.2. Do not believe that schools teach liberal values such as tolerance and respect (ie. hidden curriculum)

7.3. Traditional Viewpoint of Curruculum

7.3.1. View curriculum as objective bodies of knowledge

7.3.2. Examine ways in which knowledge may be designed, taught, and evaluated

7.4. Hidden and Null Curriculum

7.4.1. Hidden Curriculum

7.4.1.1. Includes norms which are taught to students through implicit rules and messages

7.4.1.2. Not written in the official curriculum

7.4.2. Null Curriculum

7.4.2.1. Specifically omitted from being taught in schools

7.5. Pedagogic Practices

7.5.1. Mimetic Tradition

7.5.1.1. Based on the view that purpose of education is to relay specific knowledge to students

7.5.1.2. Uses didactic method of teaching which relies heavily on lectures or presentations as the main form of communication

7.5.2. Transformative Tradition

7.5.2.1. Views the purpose of education as having the ability to change each student in a meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally

7.5.3. Dialectic teaching is the means of communication in this approach to curriculum, with the use of questioning and question/answer sessions as the main vehicle to transmit knowledge

8. Equality and Opportunity

8.1. Stratification

8.1.1. Caste

8.1.1.1. Occurs in agrarian societies

8.1.1.2. Social level is defined in terms of some strict criteria such as race or religion

8.1.2. Estate

8.1.2.1. Occurs agrarian in societies

8.1.2.2. Social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family worth

8.1.3. Class

8.1.3.1. Occurs in industrial societies

8.1.3.2. Define social level in terms of a hierarchy of differential

8.2. Social Stratification

8.2.1. Upper class - 1-3%

8.2.2. Upper Middle Class - 15%

8.2.3. Lower Middle Class - 25%

8.2.4. Working Class - 40%

8.2.5. Underclass/Lower Class - 20%

8.3. Coleman Report

8.3.1. Based on an extensive survey of educational opportunity

8.3.2. Mandated in the Civil Rights Act of 1964

8.3.3. Directed by sociologist James Coleman

8.3.4. Often misinterpreted as an argument that 'schools don't matter, only families matter'

8.3.5. Coleman's subsequent work was designed to help identify the characteristics of schools which did matter

8.4. Achievement

8.4.1. Achievement Gap refers to the observed, persistent disparity of educational measures between the performance of groups of students

8.4.2. Females achieve at higher levels in reading at ages 9. 13, and 17 but achieve at lower levels in science

9. Educational Inequality

9.1. Theorist

9.1.1. Functionalist Theory

9.1.1.1. "Just society" is one where individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation

9.1.1.2. Expect that the process of schooling will produce unequal results

9.1.1.3. Results should be due to individual differences between students, not on group differences

9.1.2. Conflict Theory

9.1.2.1. Believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality

9.1.2.2. Shows educational outcomes that are strongly linked to family background

9.1.3. Interactionist Theory

9.1.3.1. Suggests that we must understand how people within institutions such as families or schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors academic success or failure

9.2. Inequalities

9.2.1. Student Centered

9.2.1.1. Extra school explanations of inequalities focus on factors outside of school such as family, the community, culture, peer groups and the individual student

9.2.1.2. Genetic or Biological Differences

9.2.1.3. Cultural Deprivation

9.2.1.4. Cultural Differences

9.2.2. School Centered

9.2.2.1. School Financing

9.2.2.2. School Climate

9.2.2.3. Effective versus Ineffective Schools

9.2.2.4. Pedagogic Practices

10. Foundations of Education

10.1. 4 Issues of Education

10.1.1. Poverty in Schools

10.1.2. Reduction in Literacty

10.1.2.1. Socioeconomic Status

10.1.3. Assessment Issues

10.1.4. School Funding