My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Traditional

1.1.1. Schools are necessary for the transmission of the traditional values of US society

1.1.2. Conservative and right liberal

1.2. Conservative

1.2.1. Origins: social Darwinism; individuals & groups must compete in order to survive and adapt to the environment

1.2.2. Capitalist economic system

1.2.3. Definition of educational problems Decline of Standards Decline of cultural literacy Decline of Values Decline of Authority

1.2.4. Primary emphasis on the individual; they have the capacity to earn or not to earn in the economic system; solutions to problems must be addressed at the individual level

1.2.5. Educational policy & reform: return to basics, return to traditional academic curriculum, accountability measures, free market mechanisms Return to Basics Return to Traditional Academic Curruculum

1.2.6. Role of School: essential in both economic productivity & social stability

1.2.7. Positive

2. History of U..S. Education

2.1. Progressive Era: Emergence of Public High Schools

2.1.1. 19th Century

2.1.2. 1821: First public high school opens in Boston

2.1.3. Extended high school for all adolescents

2.1.4. Committee of Ten; liberal arts curriculum; Carnige units

2.1.5. Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education Health Command of Fundamental Processes Worthy Home membership Vocation Citizenship Worthy Use of Leisure Ethical Character

2.2. Historical Interpretation: Conservative Perspective

2.2.1. Academic quality has suffered because of progressive movements in education

2.2.2. Pursuit of social and political objectives resulted in significant harm to the traditional academic goals of schooling

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. Realism

3.1.1. Generic Notions Only through studying the material world is it possible for an individual to clarify or develop ideas Material world or matter is real Matter exists independly of ideas

3.1.2. Key Researchers Aristotle Modern Realism Francis Bacon John Locke Contemporary Realist Alfred North Whitehead Bertrand Russell Thomas Aquimnas Theorist William Bagley E.D. Hirsch

3.1.3. Goal of Education Understand ideas through studying the world of matter; the real world is the starting point in the quest of understanding philosophical concerns Help individuals understand and then apply the principles of science to help solve the problems plaguing the modern world

3.1.4. Role of Teacher To enable students to learn objective methods of evaluation Present ideas in a clear and consistent manner

3.1.5. Method of Instruction Lecture Question and answer

3.1.6. Curriculum

4. Sociological Perspectives

4.1. Interactional Theory

4.1.1. Close up view of the interactions between students/ students and teachers/teachers

4.1.2. Approach to questions about social cognition, or how one understands other people, tha focuses on behaviors and environmental contexts rather than on mental processes or academic achievement

4.1.3. Primarily critiques and extensuions of the functional and conflict perspectives

4.1.4. Looks at the microsociological level; everyday taken-for-granted behaviors and behaviors

4.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

4.2.1. The amount of schooling of schooling a person has is related to the individual's well-being and sell esteem

4.2.2. Education opens doors of opportunity in the employment world

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Comparison of Japan to the U.S. Education System

5.1.1. Doublel Schooling Traditional public schools Nonformal schools called the "study institution" (Juku)

5.1.2. Benchmark of educational effectiveness

5.1.3. 1880s - first national system of education under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Science,, and Culture

5.1.4. After WWII, compulsory education extended from 6 to 9 years

5.1.5. Equal opportunity for children of all backgrounds

5.1.6. Highly Competitive

5.1.7. Hard work ethic important in culture

5.2. Major Stake Holders in Limestone County Schools

5.2.1. Superintendent: Dr. Tom Sisk

5.2.2. Local School Board:

5.2.3. Alabama State Board of Education: Mary Scott Hunter, district representative

5.2.4. AL State Senator Bill Holtzclaw

5.2.5. AL State Representative - election currently in progress

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Historical Curriculum: Humanistist Curriculum

6.1.1. Based on the idealist philosophy

6.1.2. Purpose of education is to present students the best of what has been thought and written

6.1.3. focused on Western heritage

6.1.4. dominated 19th and early 20th century

6.1.5. purpose of schooling is to transmit a common body of knowledge in order to reproduce a common cultural heritage

6.2. Sociological Curriculum: Functionalist Theory

6.2.1. Role of curriculum is to give students the knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability

6.2.2. General functionalist theory Concerned with the role of schools in combating the social and moral breakdown initiated by moderization

6.2.3. Modern functionalist theory Role of school is to prepare students for increasingly complex roles required in a modern society Society is democratic, meritocratic, and expert society

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Educational achievement and attainment of women

7.1.1. Females are less likely to drop out of school than males

7.1.2. Have a higher reading proficiency compared to males

7.1.3. More females attending college than males

7.1.4. Males score higher in science and math than females

7.2. Response to Coleman Study (1982)

7.2.1. Compared test scores of students in private and students in public schools

7.2.2. Study found that differences among schools do make a difference

7.2.3. Private schools are more effective learning environment that public schools because they place more emphasis on academic achievement and because private schools enforce discipline in a way that is consistent with student schievement

7.2.4. Responses Round 2 Many found that what Coleman found significant to be insignificant Private schools do "do it better", particularly for low-income students Round 3 Where an individual goes to school is often related to his/her race and socioeconomic background but the racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race and class

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Sociological Perspective: Functionalist

8.1.1. The Role of school is to provide a fair and meritocratic selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals, regardless of family background

8.1.2. Expect schooling process will reproduce unequal results based on individual differences

8.1.3. Believe that unequal education is a result of unequal educational opportunities

8.1.4. Structural barriers best be eliminated to ensure educational success and a fair chance to compete in the educational marketplace

8.2. School-centered explanation of educational inequality: Between-school differences

8.2.1. Curriculum Working class schools have a vocationally or social efficiency curriculum Middle-class schools have more of a humanistic liberal arts college prep curriculum Upper-class schools classical-humanistic college prep curriculum

8.2.2. Pedagogic Practices Working class schools have authoritarian and teacher-centered pedagogic practices Middle-class schools have less authoritarian and student-centered pedagogic practices Upper-class schools have authoritarian pedagogic practices

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School-based Reform: School-based

9.1.1. School Choice School choice allows market forces to shape school policy rather than subjecting educators to the heavy hand of educational bureaucracy School-choice plans Intersectional choice plans: include public and private schools Intrasectional choice plans: include only public schools; permits students to attend schools outside of their community school district Intradistrict choice plans: any option available within a given public school district; choice of curriculum within a articular school to allowing students yo attend any school within the district

9.1.2. Charter Schools Public schools that are free from many of the regulations applied to traditional public schools and in return are held accountable for sudent performances Is paid for with tax dollars (not tuition) and must be open to all students in the school district

9.1.3. Tuition Vouchers Program set-up to all students that allows them to go to private schools using vouchers which were funded by the government Zelman vs Simmons-Harris: Supreme Court ruled that the Cleveland, OH voucher program did not violate the 1st Amendment (Separation of Church and State)

9.2. Other Reforms: Societal

9.2.1. Full service and community schools Focus on meeting students' and their families educational, physical, psychological, and social needs in a coordinated and collaborative fashion between schools and community services Services include adult education, health clinics, recreation facilities, after-school programs, mental health services, drug and alcohol programs, job placement and training, and tutoring services

9.2.2. Harlem Children's Zone Aimed at preparing low-income and minority students for college, even before they are born