ED 302

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ED 302 by Mind Map: ED 302

1. Curriculum based on social reconstructionist theory that schools should work to change society and help solve fundamental social problems.

2. Politics of Education

2.1. Conservative

2.1.1. Based on the ideas of Social Darwinism

2.1.1.1. Survival of the fittest

2.1.2. Person must compete in the school system to succeed.

2.1.2.1. Based on individuals work ethic.

2.1.3. Maintains a positive view on U.S. society and social problems.

2.2. Liberal

2.3. Radical

2.4. Neo-liberal

2.4.1. A combination of a conservative and liberal.

2.4.2. Critique the traditional school systems and their failures.

2.4.2.1. failures to teacher unions

2.4.2.2. failure with teacher tenure

2.4.2.3. layoffs based on seniority

2.4.2.4. absence of accountibility

3. History of Education

3.1. First Schools

3.1.1. Boston Latin School (1635)

3.1.2. Harvard College (1636)

3.2. First Public School opens in 1821. Boston English School

3.3. Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) "Separate but equal"

3.3.1. landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of laws requiring racial segregation in the public facilities under the principle of "separate but equal"

3.4. Brown vs. Board of Education

3.4.1. Overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson and determined that separate was not equal and that segregation in schools and all other public forms was unconstitutional.

3.5. Title IX 1972

3.5.1. Prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex in public education and federally assisted programs

3.6. Individuals with Disabilities Act 1975 is passed

3.7. A Nation at Risk 1983

3.7.1. Report of Ronald Reagan's National Commission on Excellence in Education

3.8. No Child Left Behind 2002

3.8.1. Passed by Bush administration

3.8.2. called for increased school accountability

4. Foundations of Education

4.1. 4 Issues in Education

4.1.1. Achievement gaps

4.1.1.1. Socio-economic Status

4.1.1.2. Race

4.1.1.3. Gender

4.1.2. Decline in Literacy

4.1.2.1. Higher Standards

4.1.2.2. Core Curriculum

4.1.3. Assessment Issues

4.1.3.1. High Stakes Testing

4.1.4. Crisis in Urban Education

4.1.4.1. Inequality in School Financing

4.1.4.2. Staffing Crisis

5. Sociology of Education

5.1. Theoretical Perspectives

5.1.1. Functional Theories

5.1.2. Conflict Theories

5.1.3. Interactional Theories

5.2. The Use of Sociology for Teachers

5.3. Sociology and the Current Education Crisis

5.4. The Effects of Schooling on Individuals

5.4.1. Employment

5.4.2. Education and Mobility

5.4.3. Knowledge and attitudes

6. Philosophy of Education

6.1. Realism (Essentialism)

6.1.1. Teacher Led Classroon

6.1.2. Tradition/Back to the Basics Learning

6.1.2.1. Math, Reading, Writing

6.1.3. Direct Instruction

6.1.4. Orderly Classroom

6.1.5. Empirical Point of View

6.1.6. Theorists:

6.2. Idealism (Perennialism)

6.2.1. Teacher Led Classroom

6.2.2. Traditional

6.2.3. Focus on Classic Literature (no textbooks)

6.2.3.1. Books from History's Greatest Thinkers

6.2.4. Electives are viewed as unnessary

6.2.5. Theorists:

6.3. Pragmatism (Progressive)

6.3.1. Student Led Classroom

6.3.2. Inquirey Method of Learning

6.3.3. Group/Collaborative Learning

6.3.4. Learning by Doing/Real World Experience

6.3.5. Project Based Learning

6.3.6. Theorists: John Dewey and Nel Noddings

6.4. Neo-Marxism (Social-Reconstructionism)

6.4.1. Student Led Classroom

6.4.2. Focus on Bettering Society

6.4.3. Flexible, Integrated Curriculum

6.4.4. Social Awareness

6.4.5. Theorists:

6.5. Existentialism

6.5.1. Student Led Classes

6.5.2. Students Choose Pace of Learning

6.5.3. Students Grade/Evaluate Themselves

6.5.4. Shuns Traditional Curriculum

6.5.5. Theorists:

6.5.6. Phenomenology

6.5.7. Hermeneutics

6.5.8. The Movie Accepted

7. Schools as Organizations

7.1. Decentralized School System

7.1.1. Federal Government has very little input regarding individual schools

7.2. Centralized Schools

7.2.1. Federal Government has a lot of control.

7.3. Education in Other Countries

7.3.1. France, Great Britain, Japan, Germany (Centralized)

7.4. Segregation

7.4.1. de facto (in fact)

7.4.2. de jure (by law)

8. Curriculum of Pedagogy

8.1. Traditional Viewpoint of Curriculum

8.1.1. View curriculum as a body of knowledge and ways this knowledge may be designed, taught, and assessed.

8.1.2. Focus on designing curriculum around goals and objectives, and to assess it in terms of student learning.

8.2. 4 Types of Curriculum

8.2.1. Humanist Curriculum

8.2.1.1. Based on idealist philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts as the basis of an educated society.

8.2.1.2. Purpose of education is to present students the best of what has ever been thought or written.

8.2.2. Developmentalist Curriculum

8.2.2.1. Based on progressive education. John Dewey/Jean Piaget.

8.2.2.2. Curriculum focuses on the needs and interests of each individual child at each of the particular developmental stages.

8.2.3. Social Meliorist Curriculum

8.2.4. Social Effenciency Curriculum

8.2.4.1. Pragmatic/progressive curriculum, with a belief that different groups of students have different needs, and should receive different types of education to meet those specific needs.

8.3. Sociology of Curriculum

8.3.1. Functionalist Theory

8.3.1.1. Role of curriculum is to give students the knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability, to further the common social order.

8.3.2. Conflict Theory

8.3.2.1. Curriculum is a reflection of ideology; they do not believe that schools teach liberal values such as tolerance and respect.

8.4. The "Null Curriculum" and "Hidden Curriculum"

8.4.1. "Hidden Curriculum" includes norms which are taught to students through implicit rules and messages, but is not written in the official curriculum. Examples: walking in line, how to speak to teachers, etc.

8.4.2. "Null Curriculum" is the curriculum that is specifically omitted from being taught in schools.

9. Equality of Opportunity

9.1. Case Stratification

9.1.1. Occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of some strict criteria such as race or religion.

9.2. Estate Stratification

9.2.1. Occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of hierarchy of family worth.

9.3. Class Stratification

9.3.1. Occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals, especially in economic pursuits.

10. Educational Inequality

10.1. Unequal Educational Achievement

10.1.1. Functionalist--- individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation.

10.1.2. Conflict theorists believe that the role of schools are to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality.

10.1.3. Interactionist theory suggests that we must understand how people within institutions such as families or schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure.

10.2. Race, Class, and Gender Based Inequalities

10.2.1. Student center or extra school explanations of inequalities focus on factors outside of school such as family, community, culture, ability grouping, and the individual student.

10.2.2. School centered or within school explanations of inequalities focus on factors within the school such as the teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, ability grouping, school climate, and teacher expectations.

10.3. 3 Controversial Perspectives: Student Centered Explanations

10.3.1. Genetic or Biological Differences Theory

10.3.2. Cultural Deprivation Theories

10.3.3. Cultural Difference Theories

10.4. School Centered Explanations of Educational Inequality

10.4.1. School Financing

10.4.2. School Climate

10.4.3. Pedagogic Practices

10.4.4. Effective vs. Ineffective Schools

11. Educational Reform and School Improvement

11.1. A Nation at Risk

11.1.1. First wave of educational reform

11.2. The Carnegie Report

11.3. Goals 2000

11.3.1. Clinton Administration

11.3.2. More Math and Science

11.3.3. Drug and Violence Free Schools

11.4. No Child Left Behind

11.4.1. Anual Testing

11.4.2. Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)

11.5. Educational Reform