McCurley ED 302

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McCurley ED 302 by Mind Map: McCurley ED 302

1. Foundations of Education

1.1. 4 Issues in Education

1.1.1. Achievement Gaps

1.1.1.1. Social Class

1.1.1.2. Race/Ethnicity

1.1.1.3. Gender

1.1.2. Crisis in Urban Education

1.1.2.1. Inequality in School Funding

1.1.2.2. Staffing Crisis

1.1.3. Battling a Decline in Literacy by

1.1.3.1. Adoption of National Standards

1.1.3.1.1. ex. Common Core

1.1.3.2. Balancing Higher Standards

1.1.3.3. Development of Core Curriculum

1.1.4. Assessment Issues

1.1.4.1. Standardized Testing

1.2. 4 Components of Understanding Education Through a Foundations Perspective

1.2.1. History

1.2.1.1. Where did we come from?

1.2.1.2. Where are we going?

1.2.2. Philosophy

1.2.2.1. An educator's perspective

1.2.3. Politics

1.2.4. Sociology

1.3. Factors that affect the World of Education

1.4. My Role as a Teacher in Making the World of Education Better.

1.4.1. Show respect toward students

1.4.2. Create trusting relationships with students

2. Sociology of Education

2.1. 3 Major Theories about the Relationships between schools and sociology

2.1.1. Functional Theories

2.1.1.1. Functional Sociologists assess the interdependence of the social system; viewing society as a machine where one part works with another to make society work.

2.1.1.2. interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole society.

2.1.2. Interactional Theories

2.1.2.1. Interactional sociologists take a up close view of the interactions between students/students and teachers/teachers

2.1.2.2. an approach to questions about social cognition, or how one understands other people, that focuses on behavior and environmental contexts rather than on mental processes or academic achievement

2.1.3. Conflict Theories

2.1.3.1. Conflict sociologists assert that society is not held together by shared values alone, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups (ie. the glue of society is economic, cultural, and political.

2.1.3.2. inequality exists because those in control of a disproportionate share of society's resources actively defend their advantages

2.1.3.3. Social Conflict Theory

2.1.3.3.1. Marxist-based social theory which argues that social classes within society have differing amounts of material and non-material researches.

2.2. purpose of sociological inquiry

2.2.1. to focus on the influence of schooling on equity and opportunity for students.

2.3. Schools

2.3.1. Serve as "gatekeepers" of knowledge and skills

2.3.2. provide students with both economic and social worth in the world of unemployment

2.4. The effects of schooling impact

2.4.1. Knowledge/Attitudes

2.4.2. employment

2.4.3. education

2.4.4. social mobility

2.5. Tracking System

2.5.1. the entire school population is assigned to classes according to whether the students' overall achievement is above average, normal, or below.

2.6. De Facto Segregation

2.6.1. racial segregation, especially in schools

2.6.2. happens "by fact" rather than by law

2.7. Levels of Education

2.7.1. I. Societal

2.7.1.1. (Society)

2.7.1.2. Structure of dominance in Society

2.7.1.3. Societal ideologies

2.7.2. II. Institutional

2.7.2.1. (School)

2.7.2.2. Educational Structures

2.7.2.3. Educational ideologies, concepts

2.7.3. III. Interpersonal

2.7.3.1. (Classroom)

2.7.3.2. Teacher's Expectations

2.7.3.3. Educational Interactions

2.7.4. IV. Intrapsychic

2.7.4.1. (Student)

2.7.4.2. Educational Outcomes

2.7.4.3. Cognitive (how they think)

2.7.4.4. Noncognitive (behavior)

3. Politics of Education

3.1. Conservative

3.1.1. maintains a positive view of U.S. society and social problems

3.1.2. Conservatives see the role of school as providing educational training to ensure talented and hard working students receive the tools to maximize economic and social productivity.

3.1.3. return to basics, return to traditional curriculum, and accountability

3.2. Liberal

3.2.1. maintains a positive view of U.S. society, but with reservations

3.2.2. believe that without government intervention, capitalism creates far too much political and economic disparity between citizens

3.2.3. believe schools should train and socialize students, but also believe that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in society.

3.3. Radical

3.3.1. negative about U.S. society due to the perceived inequalities created by a capitalist system

3.3.2. Believe schools should be used to eliminate inequalities in society, however, they also believe that equality in schools is only an illusion.

3.4. Neo-Liberal

3.4.1. reforms focus on six areas of educational policy

3.4.1.1. Austerity

3.4.1.2. The Market Model

3.4.1.3. Individualism

3.4.1.4. State Intervention

3.4.1.5. Economic Prosperity

3.4.1.6. Race and Class

3.5. Definitions of educational problems

3.5.1. Conservative perspective

3.5.1.1. decline of standards

3.5.1.2. decline of cultural literacy

3.5.1.3. decline of values

3.5.1.4. decline of authority

3.5.2. Liberal Perspective

3.5.2.1. schools limit the chances of poor and minority children

3.5.2.2. schools place too much emphasis on discipline and authority

3.5.2.3. traditional curriculum disregards diverse cultures in society

3.5.3. Radical perspective

3.5.3.1. schools fail, through classist/racist policies:

3.5.3.1.1. the poor

3.5.3.1.2. minorities

3.5.3.1.3. women

3.5.3.2. schools stifle understanding of societal problems in America by promoting conformity

3.5.3.3. the education system promotes inequality

4. History of Education

4.1. Horace Mann

4.1.1. 1837- became secretary of the board of education in Massachusetts

4.1.2. Politician and educational reformer who argued that universal public education was the best way to turn children into responsible citizens.

4.1.3. reform is credited for the popularization of "normal schools" that trained professional teachers

4.2. Plessy v. Ferguson 1896

4.2.1. a landmark U.S. Supreme court decision upholding the constitutionality of laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities (such as schools) under the principle of "separate but equal."

4.3. Brown v. Board of Education 1954

4.3.1. overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and determined that separate was not equal and that segregation in schools and all other public forums was unconstitutional

4.4. No child left behind act 2002

4.4.1. law passed by George W. Bush in 2002 which called for increased school accountability

4.5. G.I. Bill of Rights 1944

4.5.1. (Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944) provided tuition and/or technical training to soldiers returning home from WWII

4.6. Title IX 1972

4.6.1. prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex in public education and federally assisted programs.

4.7. Kalamazoo Case 1874

4.7.1. established the use of taxes to fund schools

4.8. Sputnik 1957

4.8.1. leads to increased federal education funds/1958 National Defense Education Act.

4.9. 1785, 1787 Land ordinance act, Northwest ordinance

4.9.1. Every town had to have a school and they had to pay for it.

5. Philosophies of Education

5.1. Realism

5.1.1. Essentialism

5.1.1.1. Teacher Led

5.1.1.2. Traditional

5.1.1.3. Back to Basics

5.1.1.3.1. Reading

5.1.1.3.2. Writing

5.1.1.3.3. Math

5.1.1.4. Direct Instruction

5.1.1.5. Orderly Classroom Environment

5.1.1.6. Theorists:

5.1.1.6.1. William Bagley

5.1.1.6.2. E.D. Hirsch

5.2. Idealism

5.2.1. Perennialism

5.2.1.1. Teacher Led

5.2.1.2. Traditional

5.2.1.3. Focuses on classical literature and shuns textbooks

5.2.1.4. Electives are viewed unnecessary

5.2.1.5. Theorists:

5.2.1.5.1. Robert Hutchins

5.2.1.5.2. Mortimer Adler

5.3. Pragmatism

5.3.1. Progressivism

5.3.1.1. Student led

5.3.1.2. Liberal

5.3.1.3. Inquiry Method of Teaching

5.3.1.4. Group/Collaborative Learning

5.3.1.5. Learning by doing

5.3.1.6. project based learning

5.3.1.7. Theorists:

5.3.1.7.1. John Dewey

5.3.1.7.2. Nel Noddings

5.4. Neo-Marxism

5.4.1. Social-Reconstructionism

5.4.1.1. Student Led

5.4.1.2. Radical

5.4.1.3. Focuses on bettering society

5.4.1.4. Flexible integrated curriculum

5.4.1.5. social awareness

5.4.1.6. creates problem solvers

5.5. Existentialism

5.5.1. Student Led

5.5.2. Radical

5.5.3. Students choose own pace of learning

5.5.4. Students grade and evaluate themselves

5.5.5. shuns traditional curriculum

5.5.6. Individuality and Introspection

6. Schools and Organizations

6.1. To understand education, one must look beyond the classroom itself and the interaction between teachers and students to the longer world where different interest groups compete with each other in terms of ideology, finances, and power

6.2. School processes refer to the way in which school cultures are created and maintained

6.3. Decentralized School System

6.3.1. Each state maintains its Autonomy, Authority, and Responsibility regarding education

6.3.2. The federal government has very little input regarding individual schools

6.4. Consolidation and centralization of schools

6.4.1. During the past 80 years, schools in the united states have consolidated so that education is more efficient and cost effective

6.5. Racial Segregation in Schools

6.5.1. De facto

6.5.1.1. Happens by fact

6.5.1.2. no legal requirement

6.5.1.3. Ex.) African-American neighborhoods have that are a majority of black students

6.5.2. De jure

6.5.2.1. Happens by law

6.5.2.2. Jim Crow Laws enforced this

6.5.2.3. Black schools/white schools segregated by law

6.6. Willard Waller

6.6.1. Educational sociologist

6.6.2. Asserted that schools are separate social organizations due to:

6.6.2.1. Schools have a definite population

6.6.2.2. Schools have clearly defined political structure

6.6.2.3. Schools represent a central network of social relationships

6.6.2.4. Schools are permeated with a "we" ideal rather than a "me" idea

6.6.2.5. Schools each have a definite culture that is specific to the individual school

6.7. Sociologist Max Weber

6.7.1. asserted that schools are social organizations that are bureaucratic in nature.

6.7.2. bureaucracies are an endeavor to organize human behavior in order to achieve specific goals

6.8. No Child Left Behind Act

6.8.1. Teachers must be highly qualified through meeting 3 qualifications:

6.8.1.1. Hold a college degree

6.8.1.2. Full certification in field of study

6.8.1.3. Demonstrable knowledge of academic content in the field of study/certification

7. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

7.1. Traditional approaches view curriculum as objective bodies of knowledge and examine ways in which this knowledge may be designed, taught, and evaluated.

7.2. Current approaches to curriculum focus on

7.2.1. designing curriculum around goals and objectives

7.2.2. to asses it in terms of student learning

7.3. Four types of curriculum:

7.3.1. The humanist curriculum

7.3.1.1. based from idealist philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts as the basis of an educated society

7.3.1.2. Purports that the purpose of education is to present students the best of what has ever been thought or written

7.3.2. Social efficiency curriculum

7.3.2.1. Pragmatic/progressive in nature

7.3.2.2. Belief that different groups of students have different needs and should recievbe different types of education to meet those specific needs

7.3.3. Developmentalist curriculum

7.3.3.1. Also based on progressive educational practices

7.3.3.2. John Dewey & Jean Piaget

7.3.3.2.1. Emphasized the importance of the process of teaching along with the curricular content

7.3.3.3. Focuses on the needs and interests of each individual child at each of the particular developmental stages

7.3.4. Social meliorist curriculum

7.3.4.1. Based on the social reconstructionist theory that schools should work to change society and help solve fundamental social problems

7.4. Influences on curriculum

7.4.1. Pluralist model of political power

7.4.1.1. Argues that the political system in the U.S. Is not controlled by any one influence and control

7.4.2. Political elite model

7.4.2.1. Argues that a small number of powerful groups dominate the political landscape and have disproportionate control over decision making

7.5. The Sociology of Curriculum

7.5.1. Functionalist Theory

7.5.1.1. The role of the curriculum is to give students the knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability

7.5.1.2. To further the common social order

7.5.2. Conflict theory

7.5.2.1. Conflict theorists believe curriculum is a reflection of ideology

7.5.2.2. Do not believe that schools teach liberal values such as tolerance and respect

7.5.2.3. i.e. Hidden curriculum

7.5.3. The "hidden curriculum"

7.5.3.1. Includes norms which are taught to students through implicit rules and messages, but is not written in the official curriculum

7.5.3.2. Examples:

7.5.3.2.1. Learning how to walk in a line

7.5.3.2.2. How to address teachers

7.5.4. The "null curriculum"

7.5.4.1. The curriculum that is specifically omitted from being taught in schools

7.6. Traditions in pedagogic practices

7.6.1. Mimetic tradition

7.6.1.1. Based on the view that the purpose of education is to relay specific knowledge to students

7.6.1.2. Didactic method of teaching

7.6.1.2.1. Relies heavily on lectures or presentation as the main form of communication

7.6.2. Transformative tradition

7.6.2.1. Views the purpose of education as having the ability to change each student in a meaningful way, including:

7.6.2.1.1. Intellectually

7.6.2.1.2. Creatively

7.6.2.1.3. Spiritually

7.6.2.1.4. Emotionally

7.6.2.2. Dialectic teaching

7.6.2.2.1. The means of communication in this approach to curriculum.

7.6.2.2.2. Use of questioning and question/answer sessions as the main vehicle to transmit knowledge

8. Equality of Opportunities for Educational Outcomes

8.1. Caste Stratification

8.1.1. occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of some strict criteria such as race or religion

8.2. Estate Stratification

8.2.1. occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family worth

8.3. Class Stratification

8.3.1. occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of a hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals, especially in economic pursuits

8.4. Social Stratification in the U.S.

8.4.1. Upper class

8.4.1.1. 1-3% of the population

8.4.2. Upper middle class

8.4.2.1. 15% of the population

8.4.3. Lower middle class

8.4.3.1. 25% of the population

8.4.4. Working class

8.4.4.1. 40% of the population

8.4.5. Under class/lower class

8.4.5.1. 20% of the population

8.5. Achievement Gap refers to the observed, persistent disparity of educational measures between the performance of groups of students (especially groups defined by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity or gender).

8.6. Females achieve at higher levels in reading at ages 9, 13, and 17 but achieve lower leves in science at ages 9, 13, and 17.

8.6.1. this is an example of sociological research that illustrates the impact of achievement gaps in schools on equal educational opportunities

8.7. The Coleman Report

8.7.1. an influential an controversial study

8.7.2. based on an extensive survey of educational opportunities

8.7.3. the national sample included almost 650,000 students and teachers in more than 3,000 schools

8.7.4. mandated in the Civil Rights Act of 1964

8.7.5. directed by the sociologist James Coleman

8.7.5.1. Coleman's work was often misinterpreted as an argument that 'schools don't matter, only families matter.'

8.7.5.2. Coleman's subsequent work was designed to help identify the characteristics of schools which did matter so that the impact of school relative to that of family could be increased

9. Explanations of Educational Inequality

9.1. The Functionalist Vision of a "just society" is one where individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation

9.1.1. Functionalists expect that the process of schooling will produce unequal results, but that the results should be due to individual differences between students, not on group differences

9.2. Conflict theorists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality

9.2.1. this assertion is consistent with data that shows educational outcomes that are strongly linked to family background

9.3. Interactionist theory suggests that we must understand how people within institutions such as families or schools interact on a daily basis order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure

9.3.1. student centered or extra-school explanations of inequalities focus on factors outside of school such as

9.3.1.1. Family

9.3.1.2. Community

9.3.1.3. Culture

9.3.1.4. Peer groups

9.3.1.5. Individual student

9.3.2. School centered or within-school explanations of inequalities focus on factors within the school such as

9.3.2.1. Teachers

9.3.2.2. Teaching methods

9.3.2.3. Curriculum

9.3.2.4. Ability grouping

9.3.2.5. School climate

9.3.2.6. Teacher expectations

9.4. Student centered explanations of educational inequality

9.4.1. 3 controversial perspectives

9.4.1.1. Genetic or biological differences theory

9.4.1.1.1. You're either born dumb or smart

9.4.1.2. Cultural deprivation theories

9.4.1.2.1. Students from low socioeconomic backgrounds will be behind because of lack of prior knowledge

9.4.1.3. Cultural difference theories

9.4.1.3.1. First theory asserts that African American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class structure.

9.4.1.3.2. Second theory views working class and non-white students as resisting the dominant culture of schools

9.4.1.3.3. Third theory asserts that Asian Americans possess family values that place great emphasis on educational achievement along with high expectations for children

9.5. School centered explanations of educational inequality

9.5.1. School financing

9.5.2. School Climate

9.5.3. effective versus ineffective schools

9.5.4. pedagogic practices

9.6. Characteristics of effective schools

9.6.1. High expectations for students by teachers and administrators

9.6.2. Strong, effective leadership by school administration

9.6.3. accountability processes for both students and teachers

9.6.4. Close monitoring of student learning

9.6.5. a high degree of instructional time on task

9.6.6. flexibility for teachers to adapt to new situations and solve problems

10. Educational Reform and School Improvement

10.1. A Nation at Risk

10.1.1. The first wave of education reform

10.1.1.1. in the U.S. it stressed the need for increased educational excellence through increased educational standards

10.1.1.2. Focused on

10.1.1.2.1. The need for excellence and equity in schools

10.1.1.2.2. The need to clarify educational goals

10.1.1.2.3. The need to develop a common core curriculum

10.1.1.2.4. The need to eliminate tracking programs

10.1.1.2.5. The need for major changes in vocational education

10.1.1.2.6. The need for education to teach about technology

10.1.1.2.7. The need to increase duration and intensity of academic learning

10.1.1.2.8. The needs to recruit, train, and retain more academically able teachers

10.2. The second wave of reform was based on the recommendations made at the State Governor's Conference.

10.2.1. Focused on

10.2.1.1. Teaching leadership and management

10.2.1.2. parental involvement and choice in schools

10.2.1.3. student readiness for school (for preschoolers)

10.2.1.4. school facilities being fully utilized

10.2.1.5. quality colleges and accountability for learning

10.3. The Carnegie Report entitled A Nation Prepared: Teachers for a 21st century focused on the educational quality of teacher education programs.

10.3.1. It asserted

10.3.1.1. Teacher education programs lacked rigor and intellectual demands which would negatively impact success and student achievement in schools

10.3.1.2. the necessity to reorganize the academic and professional components of teacher education programs

10.3.1.3. the need to attract and retain competent teacher candidates

10.4. Goals 2000

10.4.1. Goal 1: all children will start school ready to learn

10.4.2. Goal 2: High school graduation rates will increase to at least 90%

10.4.3. Goal 3: American Students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12 having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter so that they would be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy.

10.4.4. Goal 4: U.S. students will be first in the world in math and science achievement

10.4.5. Goal 5: every adult American will be literate and will possess the skills necessary to compete in a global economy

10.4.6. Goal 6: every school in America will be free of drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined environment, conducive to learning

10.5. No Child Left Behind

10.5.1. Annual testing required of students in grades 3-8 in reading and math, plus at least one test in grades 10-12 with science testing. Graduation rates are used as a secondary indicator for high schools

10.5.2. States and districts are required to report school by school data on student test performance, broken out by whether the student is African American, Hispanic American, Native American, Asian American, White non-Hispanic, special education, limited English proficiency, and/or low income

10.5.3. States must set adequate yearly progress (AYP) goals for each school

10.5.3.1. Schools that don't meet AYP for 2 years are labeled "In Need of Improvement." This means that schools must offer the students the option to go to another public school and/or receive federally funded tutoring. Funds would also be made available for teacher professional development. If the school does not meet subsequent year's AYP, it would be subject to restructuring.

10.5.4. Schools must have "highly qualified teachers" for teachers in the core academic subjects.

10.6. Race to the Top

10.6.1. Suggestions for educational reform

10.6.1.1. adopting standards and assessments that prepare students to succeed in college and the workplace and to compete in the global economy.

10.6.1.2. Building data systems that measure student growth and success and inform teachers and principals about how they can improve insruction

10.6.1.3. Recruiting, developing, rewarding and retaining effective teachers and principals

10.6.1.4. Turning around the lowest achieving schools