ED 302 Exploring Education

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ED 302 Exploring Education by Mind Map: ED 302 Exploring Education

1. CH.1:Foundations of Education


1.1.1. Achievement Gaps are based on: social class, race/ethnicity, gender

1.1.2. Crisis in Urban Education includes: inequality in school financing and staffing

1.1.3. Battling a Decline in Literacy by adoption of national standards

1.1.4. Assessment Issues: The question of whether high stakes testing of an accurate assessment of student learning achievement.

1.2. 4 Components of understanding education

1.2.1. History of education

1.2.2. Philosophy of education

1.2.3. Politics of education

1.2.4. Sociology of education

2. CH.2:Politics of Education

2.1. Basic purpose of education is to transmit te KNOWLEDGE and SKILL of a society

2.2. Specific purposes of education are POLITICAL ,social,ECONOMIC, and intellectual.

2.3. Political purpose of education is to instill PATRIOTISM

2.4. Social PURPOSE of education is to help SOLVE perceived problems in society.

2.5. Intellectual PURPOSE of school is to teach basic cognitive skills such as READING,writing,and MATHEMATICS.






2.11. CONSERVATIVE Perspective: deline of STANDARDS

2.12. LIBERAL Perspective:DISCIPLINE

2.13. RADICAL Perspective: SOCIETAL

3. CH.3:History of Education

3.1. School Funding is an important factor being discussed on a daily basis. It comes from the state and usually is distributed among the school and the students. The state funds the schools and students a particular amount.

3.2. 17TH CENTURY:1635 Boston Latin GRAMMAR

3.3. 1636 HARVARD College established

3.4. 1647:"Old DELUDER Satan Law"

3.5. 1687-1890 New England PRIMER

3.6. Benjamin Franklin: TRADITIONAL studies of religion and classics.

3.7. Thomas Jefferson: strongly believed the best safeguard for democracy is LITERACY. "Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge"which would provide FREE education to all children for the first 3 years of elementary school.

3.8. 18th century:Development of a NATIONAL interest in education,state in education,state responsibility for education,& growth in secondary education.

3.9. 1751:The FRANKLIN Academy opened in Philadelphia.

3.10. 1783:Noah Webster's American SPELLING book was published.

3.11. 1785,1787

3.12. 19th century:SECONDARY

3.13. 1821: Emma Willard's Troy FEMALE seminary opens. First Public HIGH SCHOOL opens in Boston.

3.14. 1837:HORACE MANN

3.15. 1855:First KINDERGARTEN in the U.S.

3.16. 1874 KALAMAZOO Case: established the use of taxes to fund public schools.

3.17. 1896:PLESSY vs Ferguson:"Seperate but equal"

4. CH.5:Philosophy of Education

4.1. Realism

4.1.1. Teacher led. based on observation.Kids do what the teacher says. Traditional Theorists:William Basley,E.D Hursh

4.1.2. Direct Instruction. Orderly classroom environment.

4.1.3. born with tabula rasa "blank slate"

4.2. Idealism

4.2.1. Perrennialism

4.2.2. Teacher led. Traditional. Theorists:Robert Hutchins, Mortimer Adler

4.2.3. Focuses on classic literature and SHUNS TEXTBOOKS.Electives are UNNECESSARY Curriculum follows the "Great Books"

4.3. Pragmatism

4.3.1. Student led. Asks a big amount of questions daily. Theorists:John Dewey & Nel Nodding

4.3.2. Also known as Progressivism

4.3.3. Group/Collab oriented learning

4.3.4. Project based learning

4.3.5. organized schools around concerns ,curi osity and real world experiences.

4.4. Neo-Marxism

4.4.1. Social reconstructionism Theorist:Paolo Freire

4.4.2. Student led. Focus on society.

4.4.3. Flexible,integrated curriculum( GO WITH THE FLOW)

4.4.4. Social Awareness.

4.4.5. Creates problem solvers

4.5. Existentialism

4.5.1. Student led. Students choose own pace of learning. Theorists:: Maxine Greene, A.S. Neil

4.5.2. Students grade and evaluates themselves.

4.5.3. shuns traditional curriculum

4.5.4. Individuality and introspection

5. CH.6:Schools as Organization

5.1. Schools are POWERFUL organizations that affect the lives of those children and adults...

5.2. School PROCESSES refer to the way in which school CULTURES are created and maintained.

5.3. DECENTRALIZED school system: each state maintains its AUTONOMY, authority,and responsibility regarding education.

5.4. CONSOLIDATION and Centralization of schools- during the past 80 years schools in the United States have consolidated so that education is more EFFICIENT,and COST EFFECTIVE

5.5. negative impact of consolidation and centralization that schools have become LESS DIVERSE

5.6. Schools have a definite POPULATION.

5.7. Schools have a clearly defined POLITICAL structure.

5.8. Schools represent a central network of SOCIAL relationships.

5.9. Schools are permeated with a "WE"ideal rather than a "me"ideal.

5.10. Schools each have a definite CULTURE that is specific to the individual school.

5.11. NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT mandates that teachers must be HIGHLY QUALIFIED throug h 1. Hold a COLLEGE DEGREE 2.Full CERTIFICATION in field study. 3.Demonstrate knowledge of ACADEMIC content in the field of study/certification.

6. CH.7:Curriculum,Pedagogy,and the Transmission of Knowledge

6.1. Traditional approaches view curriculum as objective bodies of knowledge and examine ways in which this knowledge may be designed,taught and evaluated.

6.2. Traditional approaches to curriculum view the curriculum as a body of knowledge and ways this knowledge may be designed,taught ,and assessed.

6.3. HUMANISTS curriculum is based from idealist philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts as the basis of an educated society.




6.7. HIDDEN Curriculum:norms that are taught to students through implicit rules and messages. NOT WRITTEN IN OFFICIAL CURRICULUM.

6.8. NULL curriculum:curriculum that is specifically OMITTED from being taught in schools.

6.9. MIMETIC Tradition: based on the view that the purpose of education is to relay specific knowledge to students

6.10. TRANSFORMATIVE Tradition:

6.11. DIALECTIC Tradtion:

7. CH.8:Social Stratification

7.1. Caste Stratification::curs in agrarian societues where social level is defined ib terns of some strict criteria such as rasce or religion.

7.2. Estate Stratification: occurs in agrarian socities where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family worth

7.3. Achievement Gap:observed and persistent disparity of educational measures between the performance of groups of students (groups defined by socioeconomic status,racve/ethnicity ir gender).

7.4. Class Stratification:occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of a hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals,especially in economic pursuits.

7.5. The Coleman Report was mandated in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and directed by the sociologist James Coleman.

8. CH.4 :Sociology of Education

8.1. SOCIETAL Level

8.1.1. structure of dominance

8.1.2. societal ideologies


8.2.1. Educational structures

8.2.2. Educational ideologies concerns


8.3.1. Teacher's expectations

8.3.2. Educational Interactions


8.4.1. Educational Outcomes

8.4.2. Cognitive

8.4.3. Non-cognitive

8.5. FUNCTIONAL Theories

8.5.1. sociologists assess the interdependence of the SOCIAL system.


8.6.1. sociologists take a close view of the interactions between students/students and teachers/teachers.

8.7. CONFLICT Theories

8.7.1. sociologists assert that society is held together by SHARED values alone,but on the ability if dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups.

9. CH.8:Curriculum

9.1. HUMANIST Curriculum: idealist/perennialist philosophy of teaching

9.2. SOCIAL EFFICIENCY: Pragmatic/progressivist philosophy of teaching

9.3. DEVELOPMENTALIST Curriculum: Progressivist philosophy of teaching

9.4. SOCIAL MELIORIST Curriculum:Social reconstructionist philosophy of teaching

9.5. NULL curriculum:what is purposely omitted from being taught in schools

9.6. HIDDEN curriculum:social norms that are taught in schools but NOT included written curriculum

9.7. CASTE stratification:occurs in agrarian(farming) where social level is defined in terms of some strict criteria such as race or religion

9.8. ESTATE Stratification: occurs in farming societies where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family WORTH.

9.9. CLASS Stratification:occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of a hierarchy of differential ACHIEVEMENT by individuals,especially in ECONOMIC pursuits. POPULATION Percentages:: Upper Class:1-3% Upper Middle Class:15% Lower Middle Class:25% Working Class:40% Underclass/Lower Class: 20%

9.10. ACHIEVEMENT GAP:observed,persistent disparity of EDUCATIONAL measures between the performance of groups of students

9.11. Females achieve HIGHER levels in reading at ages of 9,13,and 17 but LOWER levels in science at ages of 9,13 and 17.

10. CH.9 Explanation of Educational Inequality

10.1. Functionalist VISION: the individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation

10.2. FUNCTIONALISTS expect that the process of schooling will produce UNEQUAL results,but that the results should be due to INDIVIDUAL differences between students, not on group differences

10.3. Conflicts theorists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality linked to FAMILY background

10.4. INTERACTIONIST theory suggests that we must understand how people within institutions such as FAMILIES or SCHOOLS interact on daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure.

10.5. STUDENT centered or EXTRA-SCHOOL explanations of inequalities focus on factors OUTSIDE of school such as family,the community culture,peer groups and the individual student.

10.6. SCHOOL centered or WITHIN-SCHOOL explanations of inequalities focus on factors within the school such as the teachers.teaching methods,curriculum,ability grouping,school climate and teacher expectations

10.7. Characteristics of Effective Schools:HIGH EXPECTATIONS for students by teachers and administrators.Strong effective LEADERSHIP by school administration.ACCOUNTABILITY process for both students and teachers .Close monitoring of student learning. A high degree of instructional TIME ON TASK.Flexibility for teachers to adapt to new situations and solve problems.

10.8. GENETIC or Biological Differences Theory:

10.9. Cultural DEPRIVATION: Studies of low income will start behind because they did not have books and such.

10.10. Cultural DIFFERENCE

10.11. High EXPECTATIONS for students by teachers and administrators.

10.12. Strong,effective LEADERSHIP by school administration.

10.13. ACCOUNTABILITY processes for both students and teachers.

10.14. A high degree of instructional TIME ON TASK.

11. CH.10:Educational Reform

11.1. The first wave of education reform in the U.S stressed the need for increased EDUCATION EXCELLENCE through increased educational standards.

11.2. The need for excellence and EQUITY in schools.

11.3. The need to clarify educational GOALS.

11.4. The need to develop a COMMON CORE curriculum.

11.5. The need to eliminate tracking programs.

11.6. The need for major changes in VOCATIONAL eduacation.

11.7. The need for education to teach about technology.

11.8. The need to increase DURATION and intensity of academic learning.

11.9. The needs to recruit, TRAIN, and retain more academically able teachers.

11.10. TEACHING,leadership and management.

11.11. PARENTAL involvement and choice in schools.

11.12. Student READINESS for school(for preschoolers).

11.13. School facilities being fully utilized.

11.14. Quality colleges and ACCOUNTABILITY for teaching.

11.15. GOALS 2000

11.16. Goal 1:All children will start school ready to LEARN

11.17. Goal 2:High School graduation rates will INCREASE to at least 90%.