My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. History of U.S. Education

1.1. The Democratic-Liberal School

1.1.1. 1.Represented by Cubberly, Curti and Cremin

1.1.2. 2. Believe history of U.S. education involves a progressive evolution that is flawed but committed to equality of opportunity for all. (p.83)

1.1.3. 3. Goal was more students from more diverse backgrounds, going to school longer with social goals more important than intellectual.

1.2. Progressive Reform

1.2.1. 1. Insisted on government regulations of industry, commerce and conservation of natural resources.

1.2.2. 2. Dewey argued that schools were embryonic communities

1.2.3. 3. Hall - "the Darwin of the mind"; child-centered pedagogy

2. Politics of Education

2.1. Liberal

2.1.1. Goals/Definition

2.1.2. 1. Based on works of U.S. Philosopher John Dewey

2.1.3. 2. Individuals alone cannot bring about lasting change and government must sometimes step in to assist

2.1.4. 3. Society must make educational opportunities equal to all students regardless of socioeconomic standing or ethinicity

2.1.5. Concerned with balancing the economic productivity of capitalism with social and economic needs of the majority (p.24)

2.2. Progressive


2.2.2. 1. Schools are part of making society a better place

2.2.3. 2. Schools are the center of helping students develop their unique potential

2.2.4. 3. Schools are a foundational component of a successful democracy

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives

3.1.1. 1. Functional Theory 1a. Stresses the interdependence of the social system 1b. View society as a machine where one part works in conjunction with another 1c. Emile Durkheim was earliest sociologist to make the connection between school and society

3.1.2. 2. Conflict Theorists 1a. Do not see the relation between schools and society as straightforward and clear cut 1b. Willard Waller - without close monitoring schools can turn into uncontrolled anarchy because students have to go against their wills. 2. Variation of conflict theory is where knowledge and experience are related to art and music and literature that has been passed on by families and schools.

3.1.3. 3. Interactional Theories

3.1.4. 1. Basil Bernstein - Educational aspects and social aspects should be looked at wholistically.

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. 3 main areas 1.Knowledge and Attitudes - Higher social class background/higher achievement level 2. Employment - Schools act as gatekeepers to determine who will receive high-paying occupations 3. Educations and Mobility- Example is private and public school students receiving the same amount of education but private school educated students having the mobility edge

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. Cullman City School District

4.1.1. State Senator - Paul Bussman

4.1.2. House of Representatives - Randall Shedd

4.1.3. State Superintendent - Thomas R. Bice

4.1.4. Local Superintendent -Cullman City Schools: Susan Patterson

4.1.5. Cullman City School Board Members President:Steve Sides Vice President: Jason Neal Kim Addison Suzanne Harbin Brenda Howell

4.2. Comparison to German Schools

4.2.1. Selects and sorts children and tracks to place in secondary schools Hauptschule: designed for those destined for blue-collar and lower-level positions Realschule: lower-level white collar and technical positions Gymnasium: Academic preparation for university and intellectual/management professions

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. Social Meliorist

5.1.1. Linked to Social reconstructionism

5.1.2. Concerned with the role of the school reforming society

5.1.3. Precursor to contemporary critical curriculum

5.1.4. Presented to prospective teachers the effects are minimal in public schools

5.2. Functionalist Theory

5.2.1. Curriculum transmits the cultural knowledge that the student needs to be competent in society

5.2.2. Modern functionalist Developed in the U.S. by Talcott Parsons and Robert Dreeben Curriculium needs to change to fit the needs of the modern world.

5.2.3. Believes what schools teach is required for the maintenance and development of society

6. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Educational achievement/ attainment of Women as a minority group

6.1.1. Stratification issues such as increased wages for men with the same educational attainments as their female counterparts.

6.1.2. In the last 20 years this gap has been significantly narrowed but not yet equal.

6.1.3. Females tend to score higher in all academic subjects excluding mathematics. Liberals argue that this is proof of successful educational reform Conservatives term this as a "feminizing" of the classroom.

6.2. Response to Coleman Study (1982) Round Three

6.2.1. Published forty years after Coleman's "Equality of Educational Opportunities" by Borman and Dowling

6.2.2. Partially confirmed Coleman's data from 1966 and 1982

6.2.3. Where an individual goes to school is often related to their race and socieconomic background

6.2.4. Racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race and class.

6.2.5. Solution: Education reform must focus on eliminating increased levels of segregation in education systems Schools must end tracking systems and biases that favor white-middle class students, specifically males.

7. Educational Inequality

7.1. Interactionism

7.1.1. Based on the belief that one must have an understanding of how families and schools interact a daily basis

7.1.2. This understanding allows for a more complete comprehension of the factors that affect academic failure and success.

7.1.3. This view focuses on the aspects of student centered issues and school-centered issues in regards to academic performance.

7.2. School Financing

7.2.1. Public schools are financed through revenues from state and local taxes. Mainly property taxes and is therefore a proportional tax. More affluent communities have higher property taxes and therefore receive more funding for their schools.

7.2.2. This source of funding is not only a political issue but also causes a moral issue as well.

7.2.3. Serrano v. Priest (1971) California case where the issue of unequal school financing was declared to be unconstitutional and was later still deemed unconstitutional in the Abbott v. Burke case in New Jersey (1990).

8. Educational Reform

8.1. School-to-Work Programs

8.1.1. Signed by Bill Clinton in 1994

8.1.2. Had to contain 3 core elements Work-based learning School-based learning Connecting activities

8.1.3. Failed to fulfill its promises and therefore students who do not wish to go on to post-secondary institutions are not given adequate career path guidance

8.2. School Finance Reforms

8.2.1. 1998 states were required to offer supplemental programs such as preschool for underprivileged children

8.2.2. Areas outside school funding must be addressed as well to completely alleviate the inequality in funding creation of stable and affordable housing expansion of school-community clinics

8.2.3. In 2009 SRFA eliminated the Abbott remedies and implemented allocating funding for all districts based on the needs of the students

9. Philosophy of Education


9.1.1. Generic Notions 1. Influenced by Darwin's Theory of Evolution 2. Belief of the attainment of a better society through education. 3. Often referred to as "PROGRESSIVE" 3a. Depends heavily on experential learning 3b. Required courses correspond to the level of development of the student 3c. Belief that the school would progressively and continually reform the society in which it is located.

9.1.2. Key Researchers Roots may be traced back to Sir Francis Bacon John Dewey (1859-1952) William James (1842-1910) George Sanders Peirce (1938-1914)

9.1.3. Goals of Education 1. Education must be viewed in the larger context of creating social progress and reform 2. The goal was to integrate students into a democratic society 3. The primary goal of education is GROWTH Knowledge Societal reform Democratic communities

9.1.4. Role of Teacher Facilitator a. offers suggestions b. writes curriculum c. must be multi-disciplinary in their educational knowledge base

9.1.5. Method of Instruction 1. INQUIRY Method Individualized study Project and field trips Problem solving 2. Individually and groups 3. Education should begin with students questioning about what they want to know

9.1.6. Curriculum Integrated curriculum 1. All concepts should integrate across all subjects 2. Curriculum changes (progresses) as society changes 3. Child-center curriculum based on imagination and inquisitiveness on certain concepts 4. NOT the belief that traditional subjects should be abandoned but rather integrated.