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1. Urbanization

1.1. The Italian cities, especially Venezia had long served as intermediaries in the trade between

1.2. central Europe and the Muslim and Byzantine states to the east

1.3. many of these cities became centers of banking long before the rest of Europe had discovered this lucrative area of commerce.

2. Society

2.1. Renaissance Italian society consisted of five classes

2.1.1. depending on which area of Italy you were in on the top is: 1-the class hierarchy (were the old nobility and the merchant class that had traditionally ruled the cities). 2- the emergent capitalist and banker class (wished to become as powerful as the top class). 3-the less wealthy merchants and tradespeople 4-the poor and destitute 5-the slaves

2.2. the bankers, in particular, came from the productive classes and nobles

2.3. wealth in Italy consisted almost entirely of land concentrating in nobility

3. Slavery

3.1. the Italian city-states grew

3.2. demand for slaves also grew and they became one of the largest consumers of human slaves

3.3. no racial slavery

3.3.1. they were Muslims from Spain, North Africa, Crete, Balkans, and Ottomans. work as domestic servants the owner acquired full rights, including the right to sell and "enjoy," that slave "plantation slave" developing slavery, . In the Venetian sugar cane plantations in Cyprus and Crete,

4. Government

4.1. city-states government

4.2. The Kingdom of Naples(entire southern half of the Italian peninsula, was a standard monarchy.)

4.3. Milan and Savoy( autonomous duchies)

4.4. Rome and the northeastern Italian peninsula, Romagna(series of semi-autonomous states under the control of the pope)

4.5. Venice and Florence were republics,ruled by senates( but in reality ruled by a small group of nobility and wealthy capitalists)

5. Firenze

5.1. in this age power and military ability was not enoug

5.2. The only way to successfully maintain territorial integrity was to ally oneself with allies that one couldn't fully trust.

5.2.1. The first alliances

5.2.2. was between Firenze and the states of Milano and Napoli, both bitter enemies of each other, in the Treaty of Lodi (1454-1455).

5.2.3. The purpose of the alliance was to check the growing power of Venezia

6. Treaty of Lodi

6.1. Was a peace agreement between Milan, Naples, and Florence signed on April 9, 1454 at Lodi in Lombardy, on the banks of the Adda. It put an end to the long struggles between expansive Milan, under Filippo Maria Visconti, and Venice in the terraferma.

7. French invasions

7.1. Charles VIII of France (reigned 1483-1498) was more than willing to help Milano. The French had claims over Italian territory; throughout the fifteenth century, however, they were content to do nothing about them. Charles VIII, young and fierce, raised his forces with blinding speed and in 1495 sped through Firenze, the Papal States, and Napoli as a conqueror.

8. Papal State

8.1. The papal territory expanded greatly, notably under the popes Alexander VI and Julius II. The pope became one of Italy's most important secular rulers as well as the head of the Church, signing treaties with other sovereigns and fighting wars.

9. David Núñez A01364065, Arielle Chirinos A01363621, José Carlos López A01363681