Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Liberal

1.1.1. positive about US society but with reservations

1.1.2. says capitalism is the most productive economic system

1.1.3. thinks that capitalism often creates far too much political and economic disparity between citizens

1.2. Progressive

1.2.1. believes the schools should be part of the steady progress to make things better

1.2.2. views the schools as central to solving social problems

1.2.3. views schools as an integral part of a democratic society

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Demand for Equality of Opportunity

2.1.1. the issue of access to educational opportunity became an important issue following the second world war

2.1.2. many cases like Brown v. Board of Education, Milliken v. Bradley, and Serrano v. Priest were directly related to equality of opportunity

2.1.3. the reform for the demand of equality of opportunity is important to the history of education because it gave students the educational equality that they needed to get an education

2.2. The Democratic-Liberal School

2.2.1. democratic liberals believe that the history of education involves the progressive evolution, albeit flawed, of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity of all

2.2.2. democratic-liberal histories suggest that each period of educational expansion involved the attempts of liberal reformers to expand educational opportunities to larger segments of the population and to reject the conservative view of schools as elite institutions for the privileged

2.2.3. democratic-liberals tend to interpret U.S. educational history optimistically

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Interactional Theories

3.1.1. interactional theories about the relation of school and society are primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives

3.2. 1. Knowledge and attitudes

3.2.1. more years of schooling leads to greater knowledge and social participation

3.3. 2. Mobility

3.3.1. the number of years of education is one measure of educational attainment, but where people go to school also affects their mobility

3.3.2. private and public school students may receive the same amount of education, but a private school diploma may act as a "mobility escalator" because it represents a more prestigious educational route

3.4. 3. Employment

3.4.1. most students correctly believe that graduating from college will lead to greater employment opportunities

3.4.2. getting a college and professional degree is important for earning more money

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism generic notations

4.1.1. Dewey's form of pragmatism- instrumentalism and experimentalism

4.2. Pragmatism key researchers

4.2.1. Founders of this school: George Sanders Peirce, William James, John Dewey

4.2.2. Other pragmatists: Frances Bacon, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau

4.3. Pragmatism goal of education

4.3.1. primary goal of education: growth

4.4. Pragmatism role of teacher

4.4.1. the role of the teacher is facilitator

4.5. Pragmatism method of instruction

4.5.1. inquiry method: posing questions about what they want to know

4.6. Pragmatism curriculum

4.6.1. core curriculum or integrated curriculum

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Education in AL and Jackson Co

5.1.1. AL State Governor Robert Bentley

5.1.2. AL Senators Richard Shelby Jeff Sessions

5.1.3. AL House of Representatives-My District Mo Brooks

5.1.4. AL State Superintendent Thomas Bice

5.1.5. Jackson Co. Superintendent Bart Reeves

5.2. Great Britain

5.2.1. before the 19th century the education of children in GB was considered to be the responsibility of the parent

5.2.2. all schools were private, and for the children of wealthy families the parents often hired tutors

5.2.3. during the 19th century there was a system of charity schools for the poor that were mostly operated by religious organizations

5.2.4. the establishment of a national education system for all children in the 19th century was opposed by the roman catholics ad the church of England

5.2.5. now, the educational system in GB has eliminated the comprehensive secondary school

5.2.6. the educational system in GB is no longer the highly stratified system in which students are sorted and selected by the age 11 by examination, with achievement highly correlated to social class background

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Social Meliorist curriculum

6.1.1. it is philosophically social reconstructionist

6.1.2. it developed in the 1930s

6.1.3. it developed from the writings of John Dewey

6.1.4. goes along with the theory that schools should change society or help solve its fundamental problems

6.2. General Functionalists theory

6.2.1. this theory is concerned with the role of schools in combating the social and moral breakdown initiated by modernization

6.2.2. this theory was derived from the work of Emily Durkheim

6.2.3. Durkheim and the general functionalist theory argues that the schools has to teach students to fit into the less cohesive modern world

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Achievement of Hispanic-Americans

7.1.1. for people of both genders age 25+, 62.7% of Hispanic-Americans graduated from high school

7.1.2. for people of both genders age 25+, 13.9% of Hispanic-Americans held a bachelor's degree

7.2. Coleman response round 2

7.2.1. Jencks used Coleman's findings to compute the estimated yearly average achievement gain by public and Catholic school students

7.2.2. he estimated that the annual increment attributable to Catholic schooling was tiny

7.2.3. the differences that do exist between public and Catholic schools are statistically significant, but in terms of significant difference in learning, the results are negligible

7.2.4. subsequent studies that have compared public and private schools have also found that private schools seem to do it better, particularly for low-income students

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Conflict theorists

8.1.1. believe the role of school is to reproduce rather than eliminate inequality

8.1.2. concerned with both equality of opportunity and results

8.1.3. radical

8.1.4. do not believe that equality of education is a sufficient goal

8.1.5. skeptical that the problems can be solved

8.2. Genetic differences

8.2.1. the most controversial student-centered explanation

8.2.2. genetic/biological argument

8.2.3. Arthur Jensen held the argument that unequal education performance by working class and non white students is due to genetic differences in intelligence

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School-to-work programs

9.1.1. in the 1990s, school-business partnerships became incorporated into school-to-work programs

9.1.2. the intent was to extend what had been a vocational emphasis to non-college-bound students regarding skills necessary for successful employment

9.1.3. School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 signed by Bill Clinton on May 4

9.1.4. School-to-work Opportunities Act provided seed money to states and local partnerships of business, labor, government, education, and community organizations to develop school-to-work systems

9.1.5. the law did not create a new program, it just allowed states & their partners to bring together efforts at education reform, worker preparation, and economic development to create a system to prepare youth for the high-wage, high-skill careers of today's economy

9.2. School finance reform

9.2.1. 1973 - Rodrigues v. San Antonia ruled there is no constitutional right to an equal education

9.2.2. Robinson v. Cahill - filed in 1970 against New Jersey citing discrimination in funding for some school districts

9.2.3. in 1990 the court ruled saying that more funding was needed to serve children in the poorer school district