Student Assessments

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Student Assessments by Mind Map: Student Assessments

1. Diagnostic

1.1. What is it?

1.1.1. I believe Diagnostic Assessments are FOR learning because they are used to determine the knowledge of students.

1.2. Advantages

1.2.1. 1. Gives the teacher insight on how knowledgeable students are on the content before the lesson/unit is introduced.

1.2.2. 2. Can help students remember content they previously learned that they may have forgotten.

1.3. Disadvantages

1.3.1. 1. May cause unnecessary stress/pressure for the students.

1.4. Example

1.4.1. Presenting the class with a test (not graded) in the beginning of the year to measure their current knowledge of a future lesson.

2. Formative

2.1. What is it?

2.1.1. I believe that Formative Assessments are FOR learning because they are activities or assignments that are designed to monitor the students progress during a unit.

2.2. Advantages

2.2.1. 1. Gives the teacher the opportunity to change their method of teaching for students who are struggling with the content.

2.2.2. 2. Makes it easier for teachers to monitor student progress.

2.3. Disadvantages

2.3.1. 1. Time needs to be set aside during the lesson to present formative assessments, which may cause teachers to rush through the lesson.

2.4. Example

2.4.1. Exit tickets

3. Performance Based

3.1. What is it?

3.1.1. I believe Performance Based Assessments are assessments OF learning because it is an activity that can measure the knowledge that students have gained.

3.2. Advantages

3.2.1. 1. Provides teachers with more information on student achievement than standard multiple choice tests.

3.2.2. 2. Offers insight on what parts of the content the student is struggling with.

3.2.3. 3. The teacher can see the student's work as opposed to just grading a test.

3.3. Disadvantages

3.3.1. 1. Reliability and validity are often questioned.

3.3.2. 2. Usually require more time to administer which takes away from the time needed to teach the content.

3.4. Example

3.4.1. Oral assessment on spelling vocabulary words.

4. High Stakes

4.1. What is it?

4.1.1. I believe High Stakes Assessments are assessments OF learning because they have clear expectations and test knowledge after the content is learned.

4.2. Advantages

4.2.1. 1. Provide important information on the performance growth of students who have taken the test.

4.2.2. 2. Motivate students to study in order to receive a good grade.

4.3. Disadvantages

4.3.1. 1. Can cause extreme test anxiety and stress which may affect how the student performs.

4.3.2. 2. Do not test critical thinking skills.

4.4. Example

4.4.1. MSA exams are standardized tests taken in elementary school in Maryland.

5. Portfolio

5.1. What is it?

5.1.1. I believe Portfolio Assessments are used FOR learning because the portfolio is used to keep track of student progress during the learning process.

5.2. Advantages

5.2.1. 1. Teachers are able to evaluate student performance on actual samples of student work.

5.2.2. 2. Gives students and teachers the opportunity to discuss learning goals and progress.

5.2.3. 3. Provides flexibility in gauging how students achieve their learning goals.

5.3. Disadvantages

5.3.1. 1. Requires extra time to put together the portfolio and decide what it's contents will be.

5.3.2. 2. Scheduling individual portfolio conferences with students can be difficult and time consuming.

5.4. Example

5.4.1. A writing portfolio that includes samples of the students' writing throughout the school year that documents their progress.

6. Summative

6.1. What is it?

6.1.1. I believe that Summative Assessments are assessments OF learning because they are used to measure what the student has learned at the conclusion of a lesson or unit.

6.2. Advantages

6.2.1. 1. Motivation for students to pay attention throughout the whole lesson/unit.

6.2.2. 2. Teachers can compare student tests scores to determine if questions commonly answered wrong were confusing for students or if the information wasn't presented enough in class.

6.3. Disadvantages

6.3.1. 1. Can cause test anxiety.

6.3.2. 2. Are not always the most accurate reflection of learning because students may forget important content from the beginning of the unit.

6.4. Example

6.4.1. A comprehensive test the end of a unit.

7. Authentic

7.1. What is it?

7.1.1. I believe Authentic Assessments are assessments OF learning because they report student achievement levels based on real world situations.

7.2. Advantages

7.2.1. 1. Offers a direct indication of a student's application and construction of knowledge.

7.2.2. 2. Allows students to view themselves as active participants in the learning process.

7.2.3. 3. Encourages teachers to consider the relevance of what they are teaching.

7.3. Disadvantages

7.3.1. 1. It can be difficult to ensure the reliability and validity of what is being taught.

7.3.2. 2. Students who have more "real world" experience have an advantage over students who do not.

7.3.3. 3. This type of assessment is more subjective than a traditional pen and paper test.

7.4. Example

7.4.1. Creating their own recycling method that will make it easier to recycle and help the environment.

8. Self Assessment

8.1. What is it?

8.1.1. I believe Self-Assessments are assessments OF learning because it is a task that is used to report on the student's level of achievement.

8.2. Advantages

8.2.1. 1. It gives students the opportunity to critically evaluate their own work, which is an important thing to learn.

8.2.2. 2. Encourages student involvement in the learning process.

8.3. Disadvantages

8.3.1. 1. There is a risk that students will be unreliable or grade themselves higher than they deserve.

8.3.2. 2. Can increase the workload for the teacher because they are guiding students through the grading process.

8.4. Example

8.4.1. Giving students a grading checklist to follow in order to grade their own work (example: worksheet).

9. Peer Assessment

9.1. What is it?

9.1.1. I believe Peer-Assessments are assessments OF learning because it is a task that is used to report on student level of achievement.

9.2. Advantages

9.2.1. 1. A greater quantity of feedback is available for the student.

9.2.2. 2. Offers a wide range of perspectives.

9.2.3. 3. Encourages collaboration with peers.

9.3. Disadvantages

9.3.1. 1. Students may not take it seriously and be too critical/not critical enough.

9.3.2. 2. Students might be hesitant to judge the work of their peers.

9.4. Example

9.4.1. Giving students a grading checklist to follow in order to grade each others work (example: worksheet).

10. References

10.1. Assessment For, Of and As Learning. (2015). Retrieved September 16, 2015, from

10.2. Hurst, M. (2015). High-Stakes Testing: Accountability and Problems. Retrieved September 16, 2015, from

10.3. "Pros and Cons of Performance-based Assessment." 31 Dec. 2010. Web. 16 Sept. 2015. <>.

10.4. Scherba de Valenzuela, J. (n.d.). Defining Portfolio Assessment. Retrieved September 16, 2015, from