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Ethical, TWC: Ethics in Writing
Design Centered, TWC: Creating styles and templates
websites, TWC:Testing your website
Plan, Define or describe the problem, Establish Goals & Purpose, Identify stakeholders, Consider the ethical choices involved, Consider document formats and delivery methods, Identify info on hand and info needed, Choose tech that will best assist you
Research, Determine types of info necessary, Conduct research and gather info, Organize info, TWC:Brainstorming, Evaluate info get more if needed
Draft, Confirm goals and purposes, Organize and draft document, TWC:Outlining, Design and arrange document, Create and integrate visuals that help communicate the info
Review, Test document usuability, Solicit feedback from peers/ colleagues, Revise or rewrite as needed, Edit the doc to ensure correctness
Distribute, Include relate docs when needed, confirm transmission format to intended audience, Transmit to audience, Followup receipt of document, access outcome of document, determine if further correspondence is required
Some Commanalities, exigency and purpose, exigency, the impetus that requires some kind of writing or communication, Purpose, to inform, to define, to explain, to propose, to convince, workplace writer, corectness, experience & expertise, goodwill, Identification, Trust, audience, stakeholders, attitudes, Positive, Negitive, Neutral, use of document, skim it, read partially, read closely, revise it, take a related course of action, make a related decision, use it to support other documents, Include related documents, some type of document, how does it serve the audience, how will it be distributed, confirm means of distribution and forma, transmit it to intended audience, follow up, assess outcome, contextual factors and constraints, the context of the document should always be considered, Constraints, TIme, money
Impacts ..., How documents are produced, Word Processors, revise or change documents, Use templates and style guides, create tables or columns, use multiple windows, find and replace specific words or phrases, Insert images, symbols and charts, Edit for language, grammer and style, share or post document to the internet, Include active hyperlinks, Presentation software, apply background and themes, add animations, timings, and transition styles, insert audio, video and graphics content, switchbetween views, share the presentation, upload presentation to internet, Graphics and imaging software, Edit and crop existing images, erase or paint away part of a photograph, manipulate or distort pixels in a digital photo, create text objects and graphics, develop graphic images of objects, design images that show motion or progress, chagne text appearance, add sound or motion, Web authoring software, insert text, graphics and multimedia objects, switchbetween various modes, easily upload or post pages, Use dropdown menus, create CSS, insert internal navigation buttons and external links, automatically find and correct bad or unnecessary coding, create design notes, Desktop Publishing software, being replaced by high end wordprocessors, Help and E-Learning software, create and organize information, develop searchable, easy to navigate menus, Prioritize and sequence help information, include various seach functions, create glossaries, appendixes, and table of contents, viewedin a variety of browsers, create and use a variety of navigational aids, Single Source Programs, allow you to publish several different types of documents using the same data, disseminate document, The Internet, The World Wide Web, access, storage, multimedia use, transmission, collaboration, Email, speed, price, convience, organization, Electronic messaging, IM, Chat Rooms, texting, Video conferencing, allow people to meet face to face over distances, Groupware, help people plan, draft, revise and manage documents, develop sophisticated presentations, spreadsheets and documents, share documents and files, support IM, videoconferencing or blogging, send email or text messages within program, whiteboards to draw on, post web pages, manage a list of contacts, Content
Future of workplace writing and computer technology, wireless technology, enable writers to stay connected, bandwidth and connection speeds, allow workplace writers to develp more sophisticated interactive media documents, Integration and portability, phones and devices becoming more powerful and portable, prices for computers will continue to drop, transnationalism
Netiquette, choose an appropriate email address, use an appropriate subject line, respect others bandwidth, Lurk before you leap, polish your writing, watch those caps, use attachments appropriatly, back it up and save it, remember when its out there it is out there
Discussing ethics is difficult
This book cannot force you to be ethical
the only way to fully understand ethics is through communication with others
ehtics depends on individual choices within a community
metaethics, addresses the origins of ethical ideas and asks where they came from
normative ethics, the branch of ethics that is concerned with classifications of right and wrong
Applied ethics, analyzes the contexts in which ethics is debated.. it depends on metaethics and normative ethics
can help us think more clearly and sensitively
can enable us to articulate our views to others
enables us to advance in our ethical thinking
Ethics and Laws are not the same, Liability laws, Enviromental laws, Copywrite laws, Patent law, Trade mark and service mark law
Be Honest, Present information clearly, concise, and coherent, identify the source of your info, Use yoru time ethically, think about the welfare of others as equal to your own
Respect Confidentiality, New node
what is the reason or puepose for writing this?
who is the audience? how will they be affected
how else aside from the audience does this affect?
what athority do I have to convey this information
what are the ramifications
where does the informatino fit in the larger contect
are there limits to what writing can and cannot convey
will this document lead to any enviromental affects
what responses is the document likely to invoke
email, email is never private, not all emails are true, use common sense when reading emails
websites, just cause it is posted on a website, doesnt make it true
visuals, images are easily faked , be careful, present information accurately
Enviromental ethics, how does our action affect the world around us, how does it affect the wuality and the length of the lives of the peopel who live in the enviroment, do other parts of our enviroment have rights and if so what are they
DOnt use deceptive or evasive language
dont obscure or misrepresent the issue, abstract language, jargon, emphasis or supression of information, visual rhetoric, plagerism, use of inaccurate information
Official National Languages, remember there may be many different languages spoken in a county, but 1 or 2 official languages
International English, not as important as it use to be
Text directionality, will affect layout of a document
Does the target country have the same technology as you?
Is their technology reliable?
Literacy, is the target country at the same literacy level as you or are they lower?
Common body of knowledge, is there a common body of knowledge between you and the target country, or are there major differences?
Learning style, reading, lectures, mentoring, if present how is technology used to teach?
Trade issues, import export practices, technology export restrictions
Legal Issues, Copyrights, trademarks, intellectual property, liability, fraud
Political Traditions and symbols, national symbols, national colors, holidays
currency exchange rates
how are items priced
Cultures attitude towards age
Family and social interaction, Marrage, Funerals, Birth celebrations
Religions role in the countries government and daily affairs
Avoid Stereotypes, Avoid assumptions, Ask Questions, Collaborate with the translator
Enhance translation, Terminology, Clarity, Cultural and Rhetorical differences, Design
Locilization, Types of..., Radical Locilization, General Locilization, Benifits, Improved Sales, Localized products overcome cultural differences, Helps overcome inherent resistance, Good approach for first approach into a global market
When using Verbal Communication, Speak slowly and enunciate, Have face to face conversations when possible, Avoid noisy locations, Keep conversations 1 on 1, Remember phone calls can be difficult due to the lack of face to face contact, Pause often and ask if you have been understood, Use simple sentences, Use widely accepted business terms, Use a common single verb that explains an action, Avoid two word verb phrases ending with off, up or on, Be careful with verbs that have multiple meanings, Avoid colliquialisms, Avoid jargon and local expressions, Avoid idioms, Avoid words adopted from other languages., Avoid humor based on knowledge of the language, Assume the listener does not understand everything you have said
Transnational Ethics, Are there universal ethics?, How do different countries or cultures address ethical issues?, Does the target country hold non native business people in a different regard than native ones?, Does the target country have different ethical traditions?, Do religious perspectives affect the countries ethical approaches?, Do business practices in the target country compare up with yours in ethics?, Does the target country have industry specific ethical expectations?, Does the target country culture have the same ethical expectations on labor issues?, Does working with the country open the door to taking advantage of cultural differences?, Are there ethical concerns from working with the target country?
Write clearly, Use correct punctuation, Avoid using pronouns, Avoid idiomatic language, Avoid Comparatives, Use terminology consistatly, Include Definite articles
Localize Writing, Recognize Alphabetic differences, Use local numbers, Be alert to time differences, Avoid references to holidays, Avoid cultural references, Avoid humor
Account for Visual & Auditory Perceptions, Avoid images of people and hand gestures, Reevaluate design elements and prinicples, Account for differences in Sound Interpretation
Strategies, Confirm your purpose, What should it accomplish?, What should readers do after finishing the document?, What info should the document convey?, Analyze your Audience, Level of Expertise, Level of Education, Cultural DIfferences, Attitudes, Expectations, Context the document will be read, Gather your information, Develop Ideas about your information, Collaborate & discuss, Listing, Freewriting, Clustering, Organize your Info, Key Factors, Logic, Audience, Ethics, Purpose, Organization Stratagy, Sequetial, Numbered lists, Transitional Words, First, Next, Then, After, Finally, Sequence guide words, Step, Part, Phase, Segment, Images to clarify the sequence, Chronilogical, Timeline, Flowchart, Order of importance, Increasing order, Decreasing Order, Numbered list to guide, An alert in the introduction to the order stratagy, An explanation on why you have chosen the order you have, General/Specific, General to specific, Specific to general, Division, Divide into smaller easier understood parts, images to depict ways the parts work together, Lists to identify the parts, Classification system, grouping similar parts together, Classification, Well thought out order of catagories, Parallel structures for your classifications, Have all elements of the classification strategy leaving none out, Keywords to identify classifications and reasons behind them, Cause and Effect, Use only evidence that is directly related to your conclusion, Evidence that represents more general data, Only plausible data, Chart or diagram to organize the info, Comparison and Contrast, Use charts, tables and other visual to facilitate comparison, Evaluate the language you use to make sure you are not leading the audience, Only use evidence that gives a clear picture of the data, Use data that can be plausibly be compaired, Spatial, Data in relation to physical space or objects, Show how the areas covered are related to the information, Describe how the details are pertinent, Organize the info in ways that indicate the connections, New node, Outline your important Ideas, How the data flows, How to divide and label the info, How to develop transitions between data, Writing the Draft, Parts of the Document, Front matter, Title, Cover Image, Date, Byline, Table of Contents, List of figures, Executive Summary/abstract, Materials,parts or tool lists, Inside and return address, Definitions, Alerts and warnings, Introduction, Body, Procedures, Data, Steps, End matter, Conclusions, Additional Info, Troubleshooting suggestions, Additional Warnings or alerts, Recommendations, Indexes, Appendixes, Glossaries, Contact info, Follow up info, Nonlinear process.., Drafting the Body, Coverage and length, Organization and access, Drafting the Conclusion, Summary of the info, Analytic predictions based on the info, Recommendations for the reader, Judgements about the info, Drafting the Introduction, Purpose/objective, Convince and audience, Provide direction, Offer information, Initiate action, Scope, Statement of the problem, Relevant info and background, Key Terms, Overview of organization, Summary