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# How science works

## Hazards and risks

### What is a hazard?

Something that could cause you harm

### What is risk?

The likelyhood or chance of some thing happening

### Hazard symbols

flammable

caution

explosive

corrosive

toxic

Harmful

irritant

dangerous to the environment

biohazard

electrical

oxidising

### Lab rules

Don't run

report breakages and spillages

no eating or drinking

no shouting

## Planning an experiment

### Title

Clearly explains the independent and dependent variables

### equipment

A list of what you will be using

precision

### Hypothesis

The question or theory you are testing

### Prediction

What you think will happen

### Variables

independent, what you control

dependent, what you measure

control, what you keep the same to make it a fair test

### Diagram

2D

use a pencil and a ruler

Label

### Plan

A step by step guide explaining what you will do

## Data and analysis

### Primary data

Results that you have collected in an experiment

### Table of results

Clear headings describing the variables, The independent and dependent variables should be used to work out the headings

Units, Length, mm, cm, m, km, Miles, temperature, degrees Celcius, Centigrade, volume, cm3, mls, dm3, mass, g, kg

Use a ruler and a pencil

record to 2 decimal places, 1.00

calculate the average, add up the results. Press = then divide by how many results you have

Bar chart

Pie chart

Scatter graph

New node

### Drawing a good line graph

Title

Axis drawn with a pencil and a ruler

Suitable scale

x axis labelled with independent variable

y axis labelled with dependent variable

units on both axis

Points carefully plotted with a pencil

if it looks like the plot should be a straight line - use a ruler

if it looks like the plot should be a curve DON'T use a ruler

draw a line of best fit

### Describing a pattern

keywords, Straight, curve, steep, gradual, increase, decrease, origin, peak, constant, level

Use the axis on the graph to desribe the relationship

## Conclusions, evaluating and secondary evidence

### Conclusions

Making a judgement about what you have found out, Looking at a prediction to see if it was true or false

Using some scientific knowledge, using secondary evidence to back up your primary evidence

### evaluating

Is it reliable?

Were there possible errors made when using the equipment?

Have you got any anomalous results?

### using secondary evidence

What is secondary evidence?, Information provided by other people

examples of types, Television, internet, book/leaflet/report

How can I use other peoples work legally?, reference where it came from, write a bibliography