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How science works by Mind Map: How science works
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How science works

Hazards and risks

What is a hazard?

Something that could cause you harm

What is risk?

The likelyhood or chance of some thing happening

Hazard symbols

flammable

caution

explosive

corrosive

toxic

Harmful

irritant

dangerous to the environment

biohazard

Radioactive

electrical

oxidising

Lab rules

Don't run

report breakages and spillages

no eating or drinking

no shouting

Planning an experiment

Title

Clearly explains the independent and dependent variables

equipment

A list of what you will be using

precision

Hypothesis

The question or theory you are testing

Prediction

What you think will happen

Variables

independent, what you control

dependent, what you measure

control, what you keep the same to make it a fair test

Diagram

2D

use a pencil and a ruler

Label

Plan

A step by step guide explaining what you will do

Data and analysis

Primary data

Results that you have collected in an experiment

Table of results

Clear headings describing the variables, The independent and dependent variables should be used to work out the headings

Units, Length, mm, cm, m, km, Miles, temperature, degrees Celcius, Centigrade, volume, cm3, mls, dm3, mass, g, kg

Use a ruler and a pencil

record to 2 decimal places, 1.00

calculate the average, add up the results. Press = then divide by how many results you have

Type of graph

Bar chart

Pie chart

Scatter graph

New node

Drawing a good line graph

Title

Axis drawn with a pencil and a ruler

Suitable scale

x axis labelled with independent variable

y axis labelled with dependent variable

units on both axis

Points carefully plotted with a pencil

if it looks like the plot should be a straight line - use a ruler

if it looks like the plot should be a curve DON'T use a ruler

draw a line of best fit

Describing a pattern

keywords, Straight, curve, steep, gradual, increase, decrease, origin, peak, constant, level

Use the axis on the graph to desribe the relationship

Conclusions, evaluating and secondary evidence

Conclusions

Making a judgement about what you have found out, Looking at a prediction to see if it was true or false

Using some scientific knowledge, using secondary evidence to back up your primary evidence

evaluating

How accurate was your experiment?

Is it reliable?

Were there possible errors made when using the equipment?

Have you got any anomalous results?

using secondary evidence

What is secondary evidence?, Information provided by other people

examples of types, Television, internet, book/leaflet/report

How can I use other peoples work legally?, reference where it came from, write a bibliography