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asthma by Mind Map: asthma

1. action plan

1.1. med

1.1.1. Long term anti- inflam immunomodulators leukotriene modifiers cortisol broncho dilator LABAs prednisolone theophylline, aminophyline

1.1.2. acute SABA inhale corticosteroid hydrocortisone


2. triggers

2.1. intrinsic

2.1.1. exercise endurance training hyperventilation dehydration, dry cold air

2.1.2. hyperventilation

2.1.3. nervous system ANS imbalance PNS>SNS vagal n hyperact lower HR NANC broncho airway constriction reflex broncho constriction muscussecretion

2.1.4. psychosocial anxiety, stress NO, ect support buffer stress

2.1.5. allergic immune system hyperact. IgE

2.1.6. Hormone fluctuation decrease cortisol level lowest 4am estrogen regulate β2-agonist receptor fx

2.1.7. exaggerate inflam process

2.1.8. infection viral infection epithelial damage

2.1.9. nocturnal gravity to lung greater resistance COPD deteriorated lung fx circadian rhythm higher vagal n act. decrease cortisol level

2.2. extrinsic

2.2.1. seasonal grass, pollen,

2.2.2. work environment harmful chemicals

2.2.3. home dust animal dander 2cat, 1dog


3. single mom, 1 child, clerk, only mom talking care of her

4. 40% female during premenstrual cycle

5. sore throat, yellow sputum

6. trouble of sleep

7. asthma categories

7.1. mild

7.2. moderate

7.3. severe

8. inflammation

8.1. remodelling of airway walls

8.1.1. increase thickening of wall hyperplasia globet cells fibrosis impair gas exchange submucosal gland increase mucus secretion

8.1.2. incomplete reversibility

8.2. immune cell mediators

8.3. immune cell reponse

8.3.1. Th1, Th2 inteleukines IL4, IL5

8.3.2. mast cell IgE receptors

8.3.3. B cell IgM, IgG

8.4. broncho hyperreact.

8.4.1. smooth m constriction airway narrowing increase airway resistance

9. type of asthma

9.1. childhood

9.1.1. poor food dyversity less exposure to allergen

9.1.2. contact tobacco smoke before birth impair nervous system ?

9.1.3. gene predisposition

9.2. adult onset

9.2.1. obesity diet low vege/fruit intake

9.2.2. hormone fluction puberty menopause pregnancy estrogen supplement

9.3. occupational

9.3.1. exposure to work environment chemical

9.4. EIA

9.4.1. endurance training

9.5. seasonal

9.6. allergic

9.7. bronchial inflam

9.8. nocturnal

9.9. severe

10. higher PaCO2

10.1. Hypercapnia

10.1.1. increased breathing rate increased energy consumption increased O2 demand

11. respiratory failure

11.1. reduce peak flow

12. lower PaO2

12.1. hypoxia

12.1.1. anaerobic glycolysis increase [H+] respiratory acidosis

12.1.2. ischemic CNS response increase BP + HR increased workload of the heart

13. excessive fluid build up

13.1. airway edema