Natural Selection

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Natural Selection by Mind Map: Natural Selection

1. Types of Natural Selection

1.1. Stabilizing Selection

1.1.1. ex. Swiss starlings and the # of eggs

1.2. Directional Selection

1.2.1. ex. Guppies and color changes

1.3. Disruptive Selection

1.3.1. Variation

1.3.1.1. British snails

1.3.1.1.1. forest areas thrushes feed on light bands

1.3.1.1.2. low-vegetation, no light bands

2. Sexual Selection

2.1. Adaptive changes to secure a mate

2.1.1. Females select

2.1.1.1. fitness

2.1.1.2. Good Genes Hypothesis

2.1.1.2.1. improving survival for offspring

2.1.1.3. Runaway Hypothesis

2.1.1.3.1. lead to sexual dimorphism

2.1.1.3.2. based on traits that attract females

2.1.2. Males Select

2.1.2.1. cost/benefit analysis

2.1.2.2. Males exhibit

2.1.2.2.1. dominance hierarchy

3. Inbreeding in Populations

3.1. As a result of

3.1.1. Small Population

3.1.2. Bottleneck Effect

3.1.3. Founder's Effect

3.2. Consequences

3.2.1. homozygous genotypes increased

3.3. Ex. Colorblindness in Pingelap

3.3.1. because of a 20 member size population

4. Maintenance of Diversity (own category)

4.1. Variation is important to adaptation

4.2. Natural Selection

4.2.1. Imperfections

4.2.1.1. has compromises

4.2.1.1.1. as in human hands

4.2.1.1.2. and the human spine

4.2.1.2. are beneficial through evelution

4.3. Heterozygote Advantage

4.3.1. when one heterozygote is favored over

4.3.1.1. two homozygotes

4.3.2. Sickle-Cell Disease

4.3.2.1. In Malaria areas

4.3.2.1.1. Heterozygotes are more fit

4.3.2.1.2. Many homozygous dominants die

4.4. Cystic Fibriosis

4.4.1. recessive allele

4.4.1.1. defective plasma membrane protein

4.4.1.1.1. agent that can use normal protein

4.4.1.2. maintained by

4.4.1.2.1. Heterozygote superiority

4.5. causes typhoid fever through