Traffic Congestion

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Traffic Congestion by Mind Map: Traffic Congestion

1. Causes

1.1. Separation of Work & Residential areas

1.2. Inadequate Transport Infrastructure

1.3. Movement from one part of the city to another to obtain or provide goods and services

1.4. Poor Provision of Transport Services

2. Social Impact

2.1. Reduced Productivity

2.1.1. Spend more time commuting Waste time that can be spent on productive work Economic loss

2.2. Stress on Mental Health

2.2.1. long travelling times Fatigue Lose Concentration & Fall Asleep

2.2.2. Stuck in traffic Frustration accidents & fights

2.3. Health Problems

2.3.1. Long-term exposure to exhaust fumes from idling vehicles asthma lung diseases

3. Environmental Impact

3.1. Air Pollution

3.1.1. Greenhouse Gases trap heat global warming

3.1.2. Smog Human reduce life expectancy difficulty breathing lung infections eye irritation asthma colds Animals affect food chain poisoning Plants slow down plant growth

3.2. Noise Pollution

3.2.1. Harm Human Health Cardiovascular Effects mental illness heart disease high blood pressure

3.2.2. Disrupt Sleep

3.2.3. Intefere with People's daily activities Psycho-physiological Effects reduce performance changes in social behaviour provoke annoyance responses

4. Characteristics of Urban Transport

4.1. Variety of Transportation Modes

4.1.1. Private Transport Cars Motorcycles

4.1.2. Public Transport Buses Trains Taxis

4.2. Density of Transport Networks

4.2.1. Highly Developed

4.2.2. Well-connected

4.2.3. Great Number of Routes & Nodes

4.3. Quality of Transport Infrastructure

4.3.1. Large Capacity

4.3.2. Efficient

4.3.3. Dependable & Reliable

4.3.4. Comfortable

4.3.5. Safe

5. Concentration

5.1. Central Business District

5.2. Peak Hours

6. Characteristics of Traffic Congestion

6.1. More vehicles than the road can handle

6.1.1. slow travelling speeds

6.1.2. vehicular queues of more than 15 minutes

7. Strategy to Reduce and Manage

7.1. Improve the public transport system

7.1.1. Bus lane schemes

7.1.2. Expansion of Rail Networks

7.1.3. Integrated public transport system

7.1.4. Increased Capacity & Frequency of public transport

7.1.5. Telecommuting

7.1.6. Encourage cycling

7.2. Manage Road Usage

7.2.1. Road Pricing

7.2.2. Increased parking fees

7.2.3. Enhanced traffic monitoring