6330 course summary mindmap(Laura LIU )

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6330 course summary mindmap(Laura LIU ) by Mind Map: 6330 course summary mindmap(Laura LIU )

1. foundation:Introduction to Instructional Design

1.1. Getting to know each other

1.1.1. Forming my group

1.2. Getting to know course overview, schedule & assessment (Purpose Schedule Assignments )

1.2.1. ID: instructional design:A system of procedures for developing education and training programs in a consistent and reliable fashion.

1.2.1.1. the history of ID

1.2.1.1.1. Origins of Instructional Technology: World War II – 1940s to 1950s (key people: Robert Gagne, Leslie Briggs, John Flanagan)

1.2.1.2. An Instructional Design Model --ADDIE

1.2.1.2.1. ADDIE MODLE

1.3. reflection: I got to know what is instructional designer and what is SME, both of which I have never heard about ,and Professor broadens my horizon and let me know more my possible jobs after my graduation.

2. new knowledge:Designing instruction II

2.1. 5 First Principles of Instruction

2.1.1. Learning is promoted when learners are engaged in solving problems” (Merrill, 2002, p.43).

2.1.1.1. Examples of problem types

2.1.1.1.1. Logical problem

2.1.1.1.2. Algorithms

2.1.1.1.3. Well-structured problems

2.1.1.1.4. Story problems

2.1.1.1.5. Decision-making problems

2.1.1.1.6. Diagnosis-solution problems

2.1.1.1.7. Strategic performance

2.1.1.1.8. Design problems

2.1.1.1.9. ill-structured problems

2.1.2. “Learning is promoted when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge.” (Merrill, 2002, p.43).

2.1.2.1. Additional Resource: Existing Knowledge, Knowledge Creation Capability, and the Rate of New Product Introduction in High-Technology Firms

2.1.2.1.1. A field study of top management teams and knowledge workers from 72 technology firms demonstrated that the rate of new product and service introduction was a function of organization members' ability to combine and exchange knowledge. We tested the following as bases of that ability: the existing knowledge of employees (their education levels and functional heterogeneity), knowledge from member ego networks (number of direct contacts and strength of ties), and organizational climates for risk taking and teamwork.

2.1.3. “Learning is promoted when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner.” (Merrill, 2002, p.43).

2.1.4. “Learning is promoted when knowledge is applied by the learner.” (Merrill, 2002, p.43).

2.1.5. “Learning is promoted when new knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world.” (Merrill, 2002, p.43).

2.2. Pebble-in-the-Pond Development

2.2.1. Specify a Problem

2.2.2. Progression of Problems

2.2.3. Component Analysis

2.2.4. Instructional Strategy

2.3. Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education

2.3.1. 1. Good Practice Encourages Student-Faculty Contact

2.3.2. 2. Good Practice Encourages Cooperation among Students

2.3.3. 3. Good Practice Encourages Active Learning

2.3.4. 4. Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback

2.3.5. 5. Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task

2.3.6. 6. Good Practice Communicates High Expectations

2.3.6.1. Expect more and you will get it. High Expectations are important for everyone - for the poorly prepared, for those unwilling to exert themselves, and for the bright and well motivated. Expecting students to perform well becomes a self- fulfilling prophecy when teachers and institutions hold high expectations of themselves and make extra efforts.

2.3.7. 7. Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning

2.3.7.1. There are many roads to learning. People bring different talents and styles of learning to college. Brilliant students in the seminar room may be all thumbs in the lab or art studio. Students rich in hands-on experience may not do so well with theory. Students need the opportunity to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. Then they can be pushed to learning in new ways that do not come so easily.

2.4. Development and Adaptations of the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education

2.4.1. Adaptations

2.4.1.1. only some of the adaptations of the seven principles and do not intend to be exhaustive in those we present here, although they do illustrate the variety of follow-up activities and works in progress. The principles and the inventories have been incorporated in, adapted in, or used as the springboard for several similar assessment and research instruments.

2.4.2. Applications

2.4.2.1. The seven principles have guided inquiry into the educational consequences of new communication and information technologies. At George Mason University, for example, a faculty technology survey asked whether computer technology encourages contact between faculty and students, encourages cooperation among students, and so on through the list of principles.

2.4.2.2. The seven principles have also been deployed in professional development workshops.

2.4.3. Research

2.4.3.1. the seven principles have inspired such research and encourage others to make use of both the principles and the invento- ries in carrying out studies of teaching practices, student learning, faculty, disciplines, and institutions

2.5. The Seven Principles of Good Practice: A framework for evaluating on-line teaching

2.5.1. Good Practice Encourages Student-Faculty Contact Help, discussion Encourages Cooperation among Students Group work on Google slide / doc Encourages Active Learning Reflection, portofolio Gives Prompt Feedback Instant messaging system Emphasizes Time on Task Schedule, time allowed, Days left indicators Communicates High Expectations Rubrics Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning Additional external resources / opinions from experts.

2.6. Reflection: As for me the second principle is the most important one,because if we show the students new knowledge based on what they have never heard about before, it might be really difficult for them to get the point. And the professor showed us some example s,which helped me better .

3. consolidation

3.1. how to teach with asynchronized discussion forums

3.2. Evaluation

3.2.1. 4 levels (adopted from Kirkpatrick, 1998) Developed a model of training evaluation in 1959

3.2.1.1. Level 1 – Reaction

3.2.1.1.1. “Customer satisfaction”

3.2.1.2. Level 2 – Learning

3.2.1.2.1. Knowledge, Skills

3.2.1.3. Level 3 – Behaviour

3.2.1.3.1. Transfer of learning to the real-world

3.2.1.4. Level 4 – Results

3.2.1.4.1. “Bottom line”

3.3. Module Review

3.3.1. ADDIE

3.3.2. ID

3.3.3. Analysis

3.3.3.1. Analysis of Motivations Audiences Learning environment Learning materials Ways or methods of delivery Project management (Gantt Chart)

3.3.4. Design stage

3.3.4.1. Learning objectives (outcomes) Sequence of learning activities Format of the learning materials Selection of method and tactics Competency assessments Selection of learning tools

3.3.5. Design for presenting

3.3.5.1. Multimedia learning Situated learning Multiple representation Presentations for subject matter Design for learning

3.3.6. Types of storyboards

3.3.7. Learning Design

3.3.7.1. Describes the educational process, not just courseware but the whole teaching/learning experience. Formal description of a pedagogical scenario (also called educational script or storyboard) and that may or may not follow an instructional design model. Pedagogically informed learning activities which make effective use of appropriate tools and resources The process of learning design refers to the activity of designing units of learning, learning activities or learning environment. (Wikipedia)

3.3.8. RUBRICS for individual and group assignment

3.4. Way forwards

3.4.1. User control of information New forms of expression Web as a point of presence Internet-mediated social/collective activities Web as a platform Rich user experiences Some  speak of media revolution – “we the media” (Dan Gillmor), “voice of crowds”, increased democratization and new citizenship

3.5. Dick and Carey system approach

3.5.1. Additional Resource: The Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model was developed by Walter Dick and Lou Carey. This model utilizes a systems approach in which each part in the instructional design process is viewed as interconnected as a unit instead of being viewed as individual components (Dick and Carey's). Swapnil (2008) noted that in their book, The Systematic Design of Instruction, Dick and Carey wrote that "Components such as the instructor, learners, materials, instructional activities, delivery system, and learning and performance environments interact with each other and work together to bring about the desired student learning outcomes."

3.5.1.1. https://ci484-learning-technologies.wikispaces.com/Dick+%26+Cary+Systems+Approach+Model

3.6. Reflection: In the last class, at first I thought , no more knowledge will be taught, but the Professor also introduced a lot of useful knowledge for us .The most useful one is the review part, which enable me know better about the class and remember me of what we have learnt but I have already forgotten.

4. foundation:Analyses (learner and task)

4.1. Defining problems

4.2. Using Wile’s model to identify problem causes.

4.2.1. Why doers do

4.2.2. 5HP Models

4.2.2.1. How human performance technologist can use the new model

4.3. Using Mager & Pipe flowchart and Blanchard & Thacker process model to propose possible solutions.

4.4. Conduct a task analysis

4.4.1. How a task or work is actually performed

4.4.1.1. Convene Expert panel

4.4.1.2. Observation of experts

4.4.1.3. Interview of experts

4.4.1.4. Survey of experts

4.4.1.5. Manuals / Books

4.4.2. Clarifies conditions needed for competent performance

4.4.2.1. The equipment and materials to be used E.g. using a calculator

4.4.2.2. Assistance through job aids, manuals or supervision E.g. with the aid of a checklist

4.4.2.3. Environmental conditions E.g. by day and by night

4.4.2.4. Range of methods and situations on the job E.g. using cables of various thickness

4.4.3. Establishes minimum expectations or standards

4.4.3.1. Complex procedures  standard operating procedures

4.4.3.2. Critical output without error

4.4.3.3. Time factor is crucial  time limit

4.4.3.4. Productivity is crucial rate of production

4.4.3.5. Based on the assumption that learning is hierarchical

4.5. Conduct a learner analysis

4.5.1. Wrong assumptions

4.5.1.1. Common errors: Assume all learners are alike Assume all learners are like ourselves Examine diversity but not similarity among learners

4.5.2. Important assumptions of All Learners

4.5.2.1. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Physiological needs Safety needs Love and belonging needs Esteem needs Self-actualization needs

4.5.3. adult learners

4.5.3.1. 1st assumption: Adult learners are autonomous, independent, self-directed learners. They are actively involved in the learning process

4.5.3.2. 2nd assumption: Adult learners accumulates a growing reservoir of experience

4.5.3.3. 3rd assumption: Motivation in adults is directed to relevant learning

4.5.3.4. 4th assumption: Adult learners have interest in immediate application for problem-solving

4.5.4. children learners (birth to adolescence)

4.5.4.1. Additional Resource:The characteristic of young learners mentioned by Clark (1990: 6-8): a. Children are developing conceptually: they develop their way of thinking from the concrete to the abstract thing. b. Children have no real linguistics, different from the adult learners that already have certain purpose in learning language, for instances, to have a better job, children rarely have such needs in learning a foreign language. They learn subject what school provide for them. c. Children are still developing; they are developing common skill such as turn talking and the use of body language. d. Young children very egocentric, they tend to resolve around themselves. e. Children get bored easily. Children have no choice to attend school. The lack of the choice means that class activities need to be fun interesting and exciting as possible by setting up the interesting activities.

4.5.4.2. Additional Resource: 2.Emotions and thoughts cannot be separated, and thus emotions have a great effect on all learning. One of Caine and Caine’s (1997) guiding principles states that emotions are critical to the brain’s patterning (p. 105). If an event is related to positive emotions, there is a greater chance for successful patterning to take place. Jensen (2005) puts it even more forcefully: “Emotions drive attention, create meaning, and have their own memory pathways.”

4.6. reflection: In this session I learnt the most important thing that ,if you want to teach something.First you should have the learners analysis and then you can get their problems. And I also acquired to analyze problems with Mager and Pipe flowchart ,which is really helpful.

5. existing knowledge (online) :Learning theories

5.1. 3videos

5.1.1. Classical conditioning

5.1.1.1. Additional Resource:Classical conditioning of the eye-blink response, perhaps the best studied example of associative learning in vertebrates, is relatively automatic and reflexive, and with the standard procedure (simple delay conditioning), it is intact in animals with hippocampal lesions. In delay conditioning, a tone [the conditioned stimulus (CS)] is presented just before an air puff to the eye [the unconditioned stimulus (US)]. The US is then presented, and the two stimuli coterminate. In trace conditioning, a variant of the standard paradigm, a short interval (500 to 1000 ms) is interposed between the offset of the CS and the onset of the US. Animals with hippocampal lesions fail to acquire trace conditioning. Amnesic patients with damage to the hippocampal formation and normal volunteers were tested on two versions of delay conditioning and two versions of trace conditioning and then assessed for the extent to which they became aware of the temporal relationship between the CS and the US. Amnesic patients acquired delay conditioning at a normal rate but failed to acquire trace conditioning. For normal volunteers, awareness was unrelated to successful delay conditioning but was a prerequisite for successful trace conditioning. Trace conditioning is hippocampus dependent because, as in other tasks of declarative memory, conscious knowledge must be acquired across the training session. Trace conditioning may provide a means for studying awareness in nonhuman animals, in the context of current ideas about multiple memory systems and the function of the hippocampus.(Classical Conditioning and Brain Systems: The Role of Awareness Robert E. Clark, Larry R. Squire*)

5.1.2. Operant conditioning

5.1.3. Short and Long Term Memory

5.2. 3 articles

5.2.1. Brain Science: Overcoming the Forgetting Curve

5.2.1.1. The results showed that those students who read the material and took a booster quiz did significantly better than those students who read and then reread the material

5.2.1.2. Brain wants to retain information that is useful to you and purge information that is not. And so, if you happen to call that information into your mind in the hours and days after training, your brain tags that information as important and is more likely to retain it. If you use it, you won’t lose it!

5.2.1.3. An important note here is that these booster events improve retention for the entire learning experience, and not just for the particular topics in the quiz question

5.2.2. Enable Your Brain to Remember Almost Everything

5.2.2.1. The key to successful boostering is to provide your learners with repeated opportunities to think about their new information in the days and weeks after training

5.2.2.2. Research shows that each additional booster helps to further reinforce learning. But in practical terms, there are limits to how many times people want to be boostered on a given topic. For most pieces of information, I’d suggest that you send two or three boosters during each of the three phases.

5.2.2.3. The five-second rule

5.2.2.3.1. The fact is, learners are more likely to complete boosters that are short and sweet. And this data proves that short boosts are just as effective as long ones.

5.2.3. The Forgetting Curve–the Dirty Secret of Corporate Training

5.2.3.1. within one hour, people will have forgotten 50 percent of the information you presented. Within 24 hours, they have forgotten 70 percent of new information, and within a week, forgetting claims 90 percent of it. The situation is appalling, and it is the dirty secret of corporate training: no matter how much you invest into training and development, nearly everything you teach to your employees will be forgotten.

5.2.3.2. t every moment sensory information is flooding your brain, and your brain actively suppresses most of it using center-surround neural networks (see the end of the article for more information). This suppression is highly adaptive because, by suppressing most information, you are now free to focus on what you think are the one or two more essential pieces of information.

5.3. 30 things about adult learners

5.3.1. Motivation to Learn

5.3.1.1. 1. Adults seek out learning experiences in order to cope with specific life-changing events--e.g., marriage, divorce, a new job, a promotion, being fired, retiring, losing a loved one, moving to a new city.

5.3.1.2. 2. The more life change events an adult encounters, the more likely he or she is to seek out learning opportunities. Just as stress increases as life-change events accumulate, the motivation to cope with change through engagement in a learning experience increases.

5.3.1.3. 3. The learning experiences adults seek out on their own are directly related - at least in their perception - to the life-change events that triggered the seeking.

5.3.1.4. 4. Adults are generally willing to engage in learning experiences before, after, or even during the actual life change event. Once convinced that the change is a certainty, adults will engage in any learning that promises to help them cope with the transition.

5.3.1.5. 5. Adults who are motivated to seek out a learning experience do so primarily because they have a use for the knowledge or skill being sought. Learning is a means to an end, not an end in itself. 6. Increasing or maintaining one's sense of self-esteem and pleasure are strong secondary motivators for engaging in learning experiences.

5.3.2. Curriculum Design

5.3.2.1. 1. Adult learners tend to be less interested in, and enthralled by, survey courses. They tend to prefer single concept, single-theory courses that focus heavily on the application of the concept to relevant problems. This tendency increases with age.

5.3.2.2. 2. Adults need to be able to integrate new ideas with what they already know if they are going to keep - and use - the new information.

5.3.2.3. 3. Information that conflicts sharply with what is already held to be true, and thus forces a re-evaluation of the old material, is integrated more slowly.

5.3.2.4. 4. Information that has little "conceptual overlap" with what is already known is acquired slowly.

5.3.2.5. 5. Fast-paced, complex or unusual learning tasks interfere with the learning of the concepts or data they are intended to teach or illustrate.

5.3.2.6. 6. Adults tend to compensate for being slower in some psychomotor learning tasks by being more accurate and making fewer trial-and-error ventures.

5.3.2.7. 7. Adults tend to take errors personally and are more likely to let them affect self-esteem. Therefore, they tend to apply tried-and-true solutions and take fewer risks.

5.3.2.8. 8. The curriculum designer must know whether the concepts or ideas will be in concert or in conflict with the learner. Some instruction must be designed to effect a change in belief and value systems.

5.3.2.9. 9. Programs need to be designed to accept viewpoints from people in different life stages and with different value "sets."

5.3.2.10. 10. A concept needs to be "anchored" or explained from more than one value set and appeal to more than one developmental life stage.

5.3.2.11. 11. Adults prefer self-directed and self-designed learning projects over group-learning experiences led by a professional, they select more than one medium for learning, and they desire to control pace and start/stop time.

5.3.2.12. 12. Nonhuman media such as books, programmed instruction and television have become popular with adults in recent years.

5.3.2.13. 13. Regardless of media, straightforward how-to is the preferred content orientation. Adults cite a need for application and how-to information as the primary motivation for beginning a learning project.

5.3.2.14. 14. Self-direction does not mean isolation. Studies of self-directed learning indicate that self-directed projects involve an average of 10 other people as resources, guides, encouragers and the like. But even for the self-professed, self-directed learner, lectures and short seminars get positive ratings, especially when these events give the learner face-to-face, one-to-one access to an expert.

5.3.3. In the Classroom

5.3.3.1. 1. The learning environment must be physically and psychologically comfortable; long lectures, periods of interminable sitting and the absence of practice opportunities rate high on the irritation scale.

5.3.3.2. 2. Adults have something real to lose in a classroom situation. Self-esteem and ego are on the line when they are asked to risk trying a new behavior in front of peers and cohorts. Bad experiences in traditional education, feelings about authority and the preoccupation with events outside the classroom affect in-class experience.

5.3.3.3. 3. Adults have expectations, and it is critical to take time early on to clarify and articulate all expectations before getting into content. The instructor can assume responsibility only for his or her own expectations, not for those of students.

5.3.3.4. 4. Adults bring a great deal of life experience into the classroom, an invaluable asset to be acknowledged, tapped and used. Adults can learn well -and much - from dialogue with respected peers.

5.3.3.5. 5. Instructors who have a tendency to hold forth rather than facilitate can hold that tendency in check--or compensate for it--by concentrating on the use of open-ended questions to draw out relevant student knowledge and experience.

5.3.3.6. 6. New knowledge has to be integrated with previous knowledge; students must actively participate in the learning experience. The learner is dependent on the instructor for confirming feedback on skill practice; the instructor is dependent on the learner for feedback about curriculum and in-class performance.

5.3.3.7. 7. The key to the instructor role is control. The instructor must balance the presentation of new material, debate and discussion, sharing of relevant student experiences, and the clock. Ironically, it seems that instructors are best able to establish control when they risk giving it up. When they shelve egos and stifle the tendency to be threatened by challenge to plans and methods, they gain the kind of facilitative control needed to effect adult learning.

5.3.3.8. 8. The instructor has to protect minority opinion, keep disagreements civil and unheated, make connections between various opinions and ideas, and keep reminding the group of the variety of potential solutions to the problem. The instructor is less advocate than orchestrator.

5.3.3.9. 9. Integration of new knowledge and skill requires transition time and focused effort on application.

5.3.3.10. 10. Learning and teaching theories function better as resources than as a Rosetta stone. A skill-training task can draw much from the behavioral approach, for example, while personal growth-centered subjects seem to draw gainfully from humanistic concepts. An eclectic, rather than a single theory-based approach to developing strategies andprocedures, is recommended for matching instruction to learning tasks.

5.4. reflection: According to the articles, I get to know that; people will forget 50 percent of the information the teacher presented. Within 24 hours, they will forget 70 percent of new information, and within a week, forgetting 90 percent of it. People forget so quickly. But forgetting itself is not a failure; it is a natural, adaptive, activity. And our brain only wants to retain something useful for us. Therefore, in order to help people to really remember something, we should offer them many opportunities to review the new knowledge and use it again and again. This is the boostering, which improves retention for the entire learning experience From the radio, the classical conditioning dog experiment shows us that positive reinforcement increased the possibility of an event happening again and again. And also positive reinforcement is the application of stimulates. Behaviorism is the precondition of cognitive learning.

6. new knowledge:Designing instruction

6.1. Learning goals vs. learning objectives

6.1.1. Learning goals

6.1.1.1. Learning goals are simply expressions of the general results desired from instruction. Unlike learning objectives, they are not measurable.

6.1.2. learning objectives

6.1.2.1. … for clear communication of what will be learned … to inform the learner how they will demonstrate their learning (i.e., assessment) … to communicate expectations to learners … to provide specifications for instructional products

6.1.2.2. The ABCD approach of writing objectives

6.1.2.2.1. A udience (Can be part of the statement)

6.1.2.2.2. B ehavior (Performance)

6.1.2.2.3. C onditions (during Performance)

6.1.2.2.4. D egree (Criterion, Quality or Standard)

6.2. Reflection: At first I often heard other talk about learning objectives ,but not actually know what it is.After this session I not only know about what is learning objective but also know how to write a good learning objective, which is very useful for me .And professor also give us some examples to exercise and gave us immediate feedback .

7. group meeting (online) :Development and implementation of an instructional product

7.1. gantt chart

7.1.1. A Gantt chart, commonly used in project management, is one of the most popular and useful ways of showing activities (tasks or events) displayed against time. On the left of the chart is a list of the activities and along the top is a suitable time scale. Each activity is represented by a bar; the position and length of the bar reflects the start date, duration and end date of the activity.

7.1.1.1. I find an ICT tool which is really easy for creating a gantt chart : Team Gantt

7.2. storyboard

7.2.1. http://www.storyboardthat.com/

7.3. Reflection: This week we are all engaged in our group final assignment. We collaborate together and learnt a lot from each other.

7.4. Development and implementation of an instructional product (online)

8. applying

8.1. Group presentation

8.1.1. Reflection: In this course we applied what we learnt in this course into our group work. and I learnt a lot from other group ,their work is better than ours. And I got to know "WIX" from other groups presentation.Teacher's advice for our group is so useful and I can also learn from other groups' suggestions.

8.2. pros and corns of online courses