Metaphysics

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Metaphysics by Mind Map: Metaphysics

1. 5.Critical Metaphysics

1.1. We want to know the reality of things in themselves without ourselves.

1.2. The cookie cutter model

1.2.1. Kant/Putnam/Wiggins The work of mind is work of construction and conceptualisation in this way involved distortion. Things in themselves do not have the form or shape we impose on them - we cannot know what they are like in themselves. - Constructing something that doesn't really exist - Shapes tell us more about us - Doesn't actually correspond to nature

1.3. The fishnet model

1.3.1. Wiggins - Sameness and substance Work of mind is a construal and discovery rather than a construction or invention The fish are there anyway and if you have good nets, which keep on being refined, enlarged you can net more fish. So, the discoveries are not created by ourselves.

2. 4.History. The Greeks and Kant

2.1. The Greeks think metaphysics is a task for the philosopher. - Reality is thus identified with forms/ideas. - Empirical/material realm is accessible via senses. - Involves the province of reason rather than sense-experience. Plato is a naturalist. Aristotle thinks Plato is too radical - shares Ayer's concerns. Metaphysics is the science of being qua being. Aristotle used term first philosophy or theology. Being qua being = investigation of what makes things be the things they are. Identifying categories, mutual relations, substance and causation become important (Kant) - stay within limits of possible experience (critical metaphysics). - Metaphysics is the science of first causes. - Examines everything there is from the perspective of their being.

3. 3.Varieties of Metaphysics

3.1. Popular

3.1.1. Relates to mysticism (the experience with the ultimate) and occultism (the extension of knowing e.g. spooky, the hidden)

3.2. Philosophical

3.2.1. The philosophical analysis of arguments arising from various reflections on the fundamental nature of reality. Investigating/reflecting fundamental nature of reality - Not the 2nd realm. Ayer wants to reject metaphysics.There is a world which is revealed at the level of common sense and science.

4. 2.Transcendant V Non-transcendant

4.1. Transcendent metaphysics Transcending the limits of possible experience. Soul, God, immortality

4.2. Non-transcendant Doesn't involve this illegitimate leap beyond the limits of possible experience, but is it too limiting? Appearance, reality, phenomenal world.

5. 1.What is Metaphysics?

5.1. Reflection on fundamental natures of reality, an analysis of the arising arguments , how such reflection should proceed, whether this sort of reflection is possible or desirable.

5.2. What do we mean when we talk of reality in itself? identified by God, everyday experience, science? Is metaphysics impossible? Should it be eliminated? Should we be doing science, linguistic analysis, ethics?