Chapter 11: Stratification by Gender and Age

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Chapter 11: Stratification by Gender and Age by Mind Map: Chapter 11: Stratification by Gender and Age

1. 5.) Gerontology: the scientific study of the sociological and pyschological aspects of aging and the problems of the aged.

2. Women: The Oppressed Majority

2.1. The women'smovement has undertaken public protests on a wide range of issues. Feminists have endorsed passage of the equal rights amendment, government subsidies for child care, affirmative action for women and minorities, federal legistlation outlawing sex discrimination in education, greater representation of women in government, and the right to legal abortions.

2.2. In 2003, only 6 of the nation's 50 states had a female governor. Also in 2003, there were only 49 women in the House, out of a total of 435, and only 13 in the Senate, which the total is 100 memebers.

3. Aging and Society

3.1. One society may treat older people with great reverence, while another may see them as unproductive and "difficult".

3.2. Older people are generally married to others of comparable age.

4. Social Construction of Gender

4.1. We are likely to assume that jobs such as flying a commercial plane are a man's job, and that most parental duties are maternal duties.

4.2. Gender roles are evident not only in our work and behavior, but also in how we react to each other. We are constantly "doing gender" without realizing it.

5. Explaining Stratification by Gender

5.1. Cross-cultural studies indicate that societies dominated by men are much more common than those in which women play the decisive role.

5.2. Functionalist, conflict, and feminist theorists acknowledge that it is not possible to change gender roles drastically without making dramatic revisions in a culture's social structure.

6. Explaining the Aging Process

6.1. Aging is one important aspect of socialization - the lifelong process through which an individual learns the cultural norms and values of a particular society.

6.2. Functionalists portray older people as socially isolated, with reduced social roles, interactionists see them as involved in new networks and changing social roles, conflict theorists see them as victimized by social structure, with their social roles relatively unchanged but devalued.

7. Age Stratification in the United States

7.1. According to current projections,the over-65 segment will continue to increase throughout this century, with the "old old" (85+) will increase at an even faster rate.

7.2. The elderly in the US are better of today both physically and financially than ever before.

8. Chapter Terms

8.1. 1.) Gender Roles: Expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitude, and activities of males and females.

8.2. 2.) Homophobia: Fear of and prejudice against homosexualty

8.3. 3.) Instrumentality: Refers to an emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationship between one's family and other social institutions.

8.4. 4.) Sexism: Ideology that one sex is superior to the other.

8.5. 6.) Second shift: describes the double burden of work outside the home followed by child care and housework.

8.6. 7.) Ageism: Prejudice and discriminations based on a person's age.

8.7. 8.) Expressiveness: Concern for the maintenance of harmony and the internal emotional affairs of the family.

9. Articles that relate to gender or age

9.1. I do not think that she should be fired for being who she is.

9.2. I agree that elderly people do need a loving and caring place to stay when they no longer can support themselves completely alone.

10. Action Plan

10.1. 1.) I thinkt that instead of seeing people and judging them instantly based on how they fit into the specific "requirements" of their gender, we need to just get to know them as a person and make first impression judgements based on how they are as a person, not what the are and what they look like.

10.2. 2.) We need to start treating our elders better and respect them more. We cannot treat them like a chore or a burden to society anymore, they are theones that raised us when we were helpless babies, the least we can do is treat them as well when they can't take care of themsevles anymore as they did when we were young.

10.3. 3.) We need to close the gender-wage gap by making it illegal to pay people more just because of gender, but actually base payment on the skill and talents of the worker in his/her field.

11. Discrimination Difference: Males and Females

11.1. Males truly are rarely discriminated against. When you watch TV, and you see that the main character of a show is a male, does that surprise you? Problaly not. But when a female is cast as the lead and the show isnt a "chick flick" type of plot, then that will sometimes create a lot of questioning and problems as to why a male doesn't have the role.

11.2. To fix this, females need to stand up and fight for equality, and our male counterparts cannot stay silence because it is a "women's issue", they need to stand up too because without them most men will just ignore the women trying to make a change.

12. Discrimination Difference: Age

12.1. A lot of times people of older age in the American "culture" are treated as a burden, as less important, and less intelligent and as if they are unable to comprehend what is going on in front of their very eyes.

12.2. To fix the stereotypes that go along with elders, we need to start to treat them better. They are still people with feelings, a mind, a heart, and a soul. We cannot treat them like they are some type of burden and not useful to society. They have been through a lot, and know a lot because of that. Instead of treating them as less intelligent and less capable human beings, we need to treat them well and look to them in times when we need advice because their experiences from their long life has made them wiser than most people realize.