The 14 Categories of Disabilities as set out by IDEA

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The 14 Categories of Disabilities as set out by IDEA by Mind Map: The 14 Categories of Disabilities as set out by IDEA

1. Orthopedic Impairment

1.1. Definition

1.1.1. More commonly thought of as a "physical disability", orthopedic impairments include anything from birth defects to the effects of a disease, as well as anything causing spasms.

1.2. Teaching Strategies

1.2.1. These impairments do not effect cognitive function, so what is important here is to find ways of working around their physical limitations. Talking with the special education teacher and other specialists, such as physical therapists, that the student works with will give the teacher workable solutions to this problem.

1.3. Technology

1.3.1. Onscreen Keyboards allow students to use a mouse or joystick or even eye movements to type. Speech Recognition Software allows the user to turn speech into text. (pg. 81)

2. Other Health Impairment

2.1. Definition

2.1.1. Anything which affects the focus and strength of students including on-going diseases, disorders and/or chronic or acute health issues.

2.2. Teaching Strategies

2.2.1. Scheduling can be very important to keep students focused and oriented in class, so posting a visible schedule and sticking to it as much as possible is helpful. Teaching the students organizational skills can also assist them in being productive to the best of their abilities.

2.3. Technology

2.3.1. There are programs available, such as MathPad, which allow the student to complete their assignments on the computer. This can help focus some kids and for others it can reduce the fatigue of writing out all of their assignments.

3. Emotional Disturbance

3.1. Definition

3.1.1. The long-term inability to have normal relationships at school, depression, inappropriate behavior, and learning disabilities not caused by other factors.

3.2. Teaching Strategies

3.2.1. In the case study about Megan, the BASC-2 test was given to her teachers and parents. The scores obtained by this test suggest Megan has an emotional disturbance. It is recommended she participate in counseling services, a mentoring program, and school activities to help her feel more in control of her life. Her teachers are encouraged to prioritize goals and work on achieving one at a time so Megan doesn't feel overwhelmed.

3.3. Technology

3.3.1. In Megan's case, she experienced a lot of bullying, using parental controls to limit or watch her usage of social media may help parents be aware of what is going on and prevent future bullying instances. Also encouraging her to participate in activities in the "real world" may boost her social life.

4. Intellectual Disability

4.1. Definition

4.1.1. No longer known as "mental retardation", intellectual disability is a significantly below average intellect coupled with behavioral challenges.

4.2. Teaching Strategies

4.2.1. Keep lessons simple and concise with frequent review. Use a variety of learning aids, allowing for more hands on approaches to the lesson. These students need immediate feedback on their achievements-- positive reinforcement is very important.

4.3. Technology

4.3.1. There are many new technologies and platforms being developed to assist the intellectually disabled. One of which is AutisMate which uses personalized visuals and supports to aid the student in learning things from social skills to academics.

5. Speech or Language Impairment

5.1. Definition

5.1.1. Difficultly possessing, understanding or communicating orally.

5.2. Teaching Strategies

5.2.1. Teach the student to record important information, such as due dates and homework in a student planner or similar device. Place the student as far away from the disruptive students as possible. Consider giving them extended time on assignments and tests.

5.3. Technology

5.3.1. Picture Exchange Communication Systems can replace words and ideas with pictures a student can select to communicate with others. There are several apps available as well as devices for this purpose.

6. Traumatic Brain Injury

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. An injury to the brain caused by external force which impedes a child's ability in some way to learn.

6.2. Teaching Strategies

6.2.1. Allow for extra time when completing assignments or tests, and give the student frequent opportunities to practice using new information prior to the test. When possible eliminate all distractions, like noise, from the student's working environment.

6.3. Technology

6.3.1. To improve focus in reading Reading Helper provides colored text to assist students in keeping their place in the text, something that can be difficult after a brain injury.

7. Visual Impairment

7.1. Definition

7.1.1. Any impairment of sight that doesn't improve enough with correction to have no effect on the child's education.

7.2. Teaching Strategies

7.2.1. Have the visually impaired sit near the front of the room to ensure they hear the instruction clearly. Read out what is written on the board and describe pictures or other visual material presented.

7.3. Technology

7.3.1. Text-to-Speech software can be used to scan in books which can then be saved as audio files for immediate or future playback. (p.80) Braille printers can also be helpful for the visually impaired to turn text to Braille.

8. Specific Learning Diability

8.1. Definition

8.1.1. A learning disability not caused by physical or emotional impairment or an intelligence disability. It is a psychological impairment due to the inability to process information in certain forms.

8.2. Teaching Strategies

8.2.1. In the case study on Ellie, a variety of tests were used to determine she had a specific learning disability. It was recommended her teacher use texts based on Ellie's reading level instead of at grade level to assist her in learning new information. It was also suggested the teacher give her more opportunities to orally respond to questions and time to process information.

8.3. Technology

8.3.1. The National Library of Virtual Manipulatives has a variety of "hands on" resources to teach math concepts from Pre-K to 12th grade. Those with specific learning disabilities often learn best by doing, and this will allow them to do that with math.

9. Autism

9.1. Definition

9.1.1. Autism is usually diagnosed by the age of three. It is a disability which limits a child's social skills, including verbal and non-verbal communication. Many children also engage in repetitive actions. If the child's academic progress isn't effected by this, it is categorized as an "emotional disturbance".

9.2. Teaching Strategies

9.2.1. Role playing/Modeling so that kids can see what is expected as well as being told. Pick a goal and focus on one goal per activity. Learn what triggers a meltdown and how to prevent one.

9.3. Technology

9.3.1. Students with autism use video games to help them with academic and social challenges.

10. Deaf-Blindness

10.1. Definition

10.1.1. Children who have both hearing and vision impairments which do not benefit from the devices available to aid their disabilities single-handedly.

10.2. Teaching Strategies

10.2.1. Communication is key, but challenging. Use touch to establish focus, and give the student plenty of time to respond.

10.3. Technology

10.3.1. All of the available technology addresses either the blind or the deaf but not both.

11. Deafness

11.1. Definition

11.1.1. Deafness requires children to be unable to understand spoken information with or without hearing devices.

11.2. Teaching Strategies

11.2.1. Use a variety of visual aids and texts in class. If there is an interpreter, be sure the student can see both of you. Try a circular seating chart so students can see everyone as they are talking.

11.3. Technology

11.3.1. Speak-It is an app that will convert text to speech so a student can "talk". This would allow a deaf student who can't speak, or is uncomfortable using their voice, to participate in classroom discussions or presentations.

12. Developmental Delay

12.1. Definition

12.1.1. This delay is defined by the individual state, but includes emotional, mental, and physical delays that are considerably behind the abilities of their peers.

12.2. Teaching Strategies

12.2.1. Be specific-- focus praise, feedback and instructions into clear, concise points. Use demonstrations as well as giving verbal instructions and give the student time to process the information you are giving them.

12.3. Technology

12.3.1. There are numerous apps and games to assist those who are delayed-- the goal is to find one that meets the student at his or her level and will eventually challenge them to grow beyond their current abilities.

13. Hearing Impairment

13.1. Definition

13.1.1. Either a permanent or temporary condition which doesn't qualify as deafness but does impair a child's ability to hear.

13.2. Teaching Strategies

13.2.1. Use visual aids when presenting new or important information. Keep instructions concise, and don't paraphrase when you repeat them. Help the student find a classmate who takes good notes and provide copies.

13.3. Technology

13.3.1. Mrs. Crammer used a device that clipped on to her blouse to broadcast her voice from the ceiling making her voice "surround sound". This helped her hearing impaired hear her as well as kept her non-hearing impaired focused.

14. Multiple Disabilities

14.1. Definition

14.1.1. A student has multiple disabilities when they have two or more disabilities at the same time which are so severe they cannot be taught using only strategies aimed at one of their disabilities.

14.2. Teaching Strategies

14.2.1. This is a catch all definition which doesn't help the teacher to prepare the classroom or lessons in advance. The best hope is that combining multiple techniques from all of the various disabilities your student is dealing with will be effective in teaching this student.

14.3. Technology

14.3.1. See all the technologies available for the singular disabilities your student faces and see if any of them can be modified to meet your/their needs.