EAL Strategies

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EAL Strategies by Mind Map: EAL Strategies

1. Sheltered English Learning

1.1. Objectives

1.1.1. Sheltered English Learning improves students' English acquisition while providing access to mainstream subject content.

1.2. Standards

1.2.1. Provide Content Objectives Announce and write lesson objectives on the board. Revisit objectives throughout the lesson and make sure students understand the goals.

1.2.2. Add Language Objectives Provide sentence frames (fill-in-the-blanks statements) Provide useful phrases for the subject matter Provide organisation models (e.g. blank layout of a science lab report)

1.2.3. Access and Build Background Knowledge Ask content questions of students in class to find out what they know. Allow students to talk to a partner (in English or mother tongue) about their prior science learning or knowledge.

1.2.4. Hands-On Activities First, provide background knowledge of the topic Then provide physical interaction with the topic (science experiments, acting out concepts, creating physical models) Give extra time to allow for exploration of the concept in hands-on activities

1.2.5. Focus on Academic Vocabulary Display and define key vocabulary for each unit as new words come up Don’t front-load the vocabulary at the start (overwhelming) - teach new words as they come up during the lesson Get students to develop Word Walls where they can display new vocabulary Content-specific vocabulary (DNA, exoskeleton, titration…) General academic vocabulary (analyse, according to, in comparison to…)

1.2.6. Use Visuals, Pictures, Multimedia Provide real and visual representations of a concept, procedure or topic to support and enhance learning. Use videos, charts and graphs, timelines, maps, photographs and drawings when possible.

1.2.7. Model the Concept Provide students with a step-by-step procedure Scaffold problem solving by breaking it into steps Model the correct application of skills (ie use of science lab equipment)

1.2.8. Provide Adapted Text Provide students with texts of reduced-complexity, length and vocabulary. Texts can also be audio or video recorded

1.2.9. Use Graphic Organisers An outline on the wall or board can show the organisation of the concept Students can work in groups to come up with their own graphic organisers

1.2.10. Board Use Always display new words visually on the board and say them out loud. Use the Promethean smartboard in class (board displays can be saved and distributed to the students). Lectures using the smart board can be recorded and shared using the school’s work management software.

1.2.11. Checks for Understanding Ask students different levels of questions from basic to difficult. If students have trouble responding, offer a choice of ways to respond (write a paragraph, draw a diagram, act out with a partner). Monitor regular assessment outcomes and give students productive feedback that will help them improve their results.

1.2.12. Cooperative Learning Strategies This can be brief (explaining a concept to a partner) or longer-term (group assignments). Think-Pair-Share method Peer tutoring (Each Teach) Allow students to use their Mother Tongue to enhance their understanding of the material (grouping students together who can discuss new concepts in mother tongue)

1.2.13. Provide exemplars Display student work from previous years on the walls If the unit of work is new, create your own examples.

1.2.14. Classroom Organisation for EALs Priority seating for EAL students - at the front, near supportive students, good view of the board(s) Wall space for examples, vocabulary charts etc

1.2.15. Parent Communication Parent emails Raising tickets in the “Praise / Concern” system with pastoral follow-up. Explain assignments and expectations, ask for translation support when necessary, check in about student progress.

2. EAL Pull Out

2.1. Objectives

2.1.1. The EAL Pull-Out strategy involves EAL students being “pulled out” of their mainstream classes, and spending part of the day receiving specific instruction for English acquisition.

2.2. Standards

2.2.1. Students will listen, speak, read and write in English for: Information and Understanding Use English to acquire, interpret, apply and transmit information Students can read a simple text about a topic, and the teacher makes a presentation clarifying the information with words and pictures. Students are encouraged to come up with three relevant questions about the topic and interview the teacher, writing down notes on her responses. Develop and use skills and strategies to collect data, facts and ideas Students develop research skills by completing a project about another country (e.g. one of their classmates’ home countries) Teachers can introduce strategies for skimming, reviewing, listening for main ideas and details, note taking, sequence, and understanding letter-sound relationships to figure out difficult words. Discover relationships, concepts and generalisations Graphic organisers can help students discover and understand the relationships between different concepts. Advanced students can work in groups to develop these graphic organisers themselves. Use knowledge generated from oral, written and electronically produced texts Students can select and read a news article about an event in their home country. They can create a chart showing the timeline of events and the different groups involved, and prepare a presentation for the class about the event.

2.2.2. Students will listen, speak, read and write in English for: Literary Response, Enjoyment and Expression Use English for self expression, artistic creation, participation in popular culture Students can write a blog or journal about their favourite TV show. Develop and use skills to listen to, read and respond to oral, written and electronically produced texts and performances Teachers can provide key phrases for expressing opinions on the plot of a TV show and analysing the performances on the show. Students can listen to audiobooks or podcasts in their own time for listening comprehension practice, and write a review for the class. Produce specific exercises for learning skimming, scanning, selective listening, and identifying points of view Relate texts and performances to their own lives and other works Students can be introduced to art (literary or physical) that depicts a journey, and find ways to connect meaning to their own experiences travelling from one place to another. Develop an understanding of diverse social, historical and cultural dimensions represented in the texts and performances Students can individually analyse a performance, discuss it in pairs (Think-Pair-Share) and then as a group, think about different Students can create their own performance art (individually or in groups) and their classmates can comment on the specific cultural aspects of the performance.

2.2.3. Students will listen, speak, read and write in English for: Critical Analysis and Evaluation Use English to express opinions and judgements on experiences, messages, ideas, information and issues from a variety of perspectives Students should learn to critically analyse points of view, clarity of ideas, logic, originality and organisation of presented work A famous speech can be analysed in groups and assessed on whether it was persuasive and successful at communicating its message. Students can read two opposing editorials from a newspaper and complete further research, then write a letter to the editor either agreeing or disagreeing with the editorials, based on their analysis and research. Develop and use skills and strategies to reflect on and analyse experiences, messages, ideas, information and issues presented by others. Teacher guides students understanding of different forms of presentation including oral, visual and written presentation After a field trip to a local historical site, and interviewing the guide, students write a report reflecting on their experience and what they learned.

2.2.4. Students will listen, speak, read and write in English for: Classroom and Social Interaction Students will use English to interact with others in social and classroom situations. Students learn about different forms (notes, invitations, emails diary entries) and audiences (peers, classes, teachers, other adults) Students can create an invitation to an end-of-term school play and to a birthday party and discuss the differences. Develop and use skills and strategies to communicate effectively with regard to audience, purpose and setting Teacher can provide students with expressions and routines used when communicating with different people and for different reasons (making a purchase, applying to college, chatting with friends, greeting a principal) Students can brainstorm to find situations that may be difficult for a new student entering the school. Students role-play the dialogue between the new student and their new classmates, and focus on communication strategies (asking for what you need, making someone feel comfortable)

2.2.5. Students will listen, speak, read and write in English for: Cross-Cultural Knowledge and Understanding Students will demonstrate cross-cultural knowledge and sensitivity in communicating with others of varied social, cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Teachers introduce concepts of slang, humour, idioms, nonstandard dialects and levels of formality, as well as different cultural references such as holidays, traditions, customs and symbols. Students can read a short story individually, and then discuss as a class how the cultural and social conditions affected the author and the story. Develop and use culturally appropriate behaviours, and knowledge of local and national cultures and practices, in their interactions with others in their new cultural environment. Students can listen to a recording and read the lyrics of the national anthem, and discuss the themes of the song and how they relate to the history of the country and culture. Students can compare this to their own national anthem.