Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. How will I teach?

1.1.1. Teacher Centered

1.1.2. Student Centered

1.2. What is my curriculum?

1.3. Who am I as a teacher?

1.4. Who are my students?

1.4.1. How do they learn?

1.4.1.1. Auditory

1.4.1.2. Hands-on

1.4.1.3. Reading

1.4.2. Are they special needs?

1.4.2.1. Autistic

1.4.2.2. Downs Syndrome

1.4.3. What is their socioeconomic status?

1.4.3.1. Upper class

1.4.3.2. Middle class

1.4.3.3. Working class

1.5. What does my classroom look like?

1.6. How will I assess my students?

2. Politics of Education

2.1. Conservative

2.1.1. William Graham Sumner

2.1.2. Emphasis on the Individual

2.1.3. One must earn their place

2.2. Traditional

2.2.1. schools necessary to transmit values

2.2.1.1. Hard work

2.2.1.2. Family Unity

2.2.1.3. Individual Initiative

2.2.2. Schools should pass on best of what was and what is

2.2.3. Encampass conservative and right liberal views

3. Educational Reform

3.1. Alabama's Accountability act of 2013

3.2. Elementary/Secondary Education Act

3.2.1. Result of space race

3.2.2. Put emphasis on math and science

3.2.3. deemphasized history

3.3. No child left behind

3.3.1. Focuses on reading

3.3.2. deemphasized math and science

3.4. Rise of the common school

3.5. First board of education created Mass. 1837

3.5.1. Created by Horace Mann

3.6. Normal schools were created for teacher education. Mass. 1839

3.7. Reforms of the Standards 1980's to present day

3.7.1. Nation at Risk (Regan) Goals 2000 (Clinton) No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Race to the Top (RTT)

3.7.1.1. Problems associated: Teaching to the test to survive Failing schools lead to money leaving public school system to go to private schools Charter schools Privatization of schools

3.8. John Goodlad - a place called school

3.9. Characteristics of highly effective teachers

3.9.1. A 'Calling' for the profession

3.9.2. Professional Knowledge

3.9.3. Personal Qualties

3.9.4. With-it-ness

3.9.5. Willing to go the extra mile

3.9.6. lifelong learner

3.9.7. Instructional effectiveness

3.9.8. good communicator

3.9.9. street smart

3.9.10. Most important factor in the success of the student it the teacher

3.10. Reform in education 1980's to 2012

3.10.1. Two waves of attack 1st concerned with accountability and achievement 2nd concerned with the processes of the school Top down management from the federal government

3.10.2. Federal involvement America 2000 Goals 2000 No child left behind Race to the top

3.11. Approaches to reform

3.11.1. Neo Liberal Approach Societal and community approach

3.12. School based reforms

3.12.1. School choice charter schools tuition vouchers intersectional Choice Plans (public to private) Intersectional Choice plans (any public school in district)

3.13. School -business partnerships privatization of school school word programs

3.14. Teacher education programs

3.14.1. More intellectual demands in education Attract and retain competent teachers Reorganize Educational academic and professional development

4. Equality of Opportunity

4.1. public education is a social vehicle for minimizing the important of wealth and class as a determinant of who shall get ahead.

4.2. structural stratification is a structural characteristic of societies

4.3. Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences

4.4. social stratification

4.4.1. caste - a person's social level is determined by race or religion

4.4.2. Estate systems - a person's social level is determined by family value and worth

4.4.3. Class system - a person's worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement.

4.5. the lower classes in america have had their ability to overcome decreased because of inflation

4.6. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class

4.7. Class

4.7.1. Schools represent the middle and upper classes

4.7.2. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and rest performance

4.8. Race

4.8.1. has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves

4.8.2. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white americans

4.9. gender

4.9.1. in the last 20 years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment

4.9.2. disparities still exist in education and job salaries

4.9.3. title 9

4.10. SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational success

4.11. equal opportunity

4.11.1. PL 94-142 or the EHA. Education of handicapped in 1975

4.11.2. IDEA 1996

4.11.3. REI - regular education unitive or mainstreaming.

4.12. The Coleman study 1966

4.12.1. coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools.

4.12.2. private schools outperform public school students

4.12.3. differences in schools do make a difference.

4.12.4. difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students.

4.13. school segregation

4.13.1. despite decreases in segregation, racial and ethnic segregation is increasing

4.13.2. evidence shows that highly segregated schools have lower achievement levels than integrated schools and minorities do better in integrated schools.

5. History of U.S. Education

5.1. 1642 Old Deluder Satan Act

5.1.1. Taught students to read bible to save their souls

5.2. Transmit our culture

5.3. Prepare for

5.3.1. Global Economy

5.3.2. Workforce

5.4. Massachusetts School of Law 1647

5.4.1. Started first public education

5.4.2. Townships of 50 families or more to provide education for children

5.5. First board of education created Mass. 1837

5.5.1. Created by Horace Mann

5.6. John Dewey

5.6.1. Father of modern education

5.6.2. Emphasized the need of the individual to create better society

5.6.3. Progressive

5.6.4. Schools are miniature community - embryonic society

5.7. Committee of the 10

5.7.1. Created by the National Education Association, chaired by Charles Elliot

5.7.2. Recommendations for high school in 1918 1. Heath 2. Command of fundamental processes 3. Worthy home membership 4. Vocation 5. Citizenship 6. Worthy use of leisure 7. Ethical character

5.8. Civil Rights Movement

5.8.1. Plessy v. Ferguson

5.8.1.1. Seprate but equal

5.8.1.2. Seprate but equal

5.8.2. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education

5.8.2.1. Desegregate schools - no such thing as separate but equal

5.9. Space Race

5.9.1. Encouraged Science and mathematics

5.10. Mid 60's emphasis went back to individual needs due to Civil Rights Act 1963

5.11. Elementary/Secondary Education Act 1965 provided for special needs students

5.12. FAPE - Free and Appropriate Education

5.13. Historical Perspective of U.S. Education

5.13.1. Democratic - Liberal School Conservative School

5.14. Poesy v. Ferguson

6. Sociological Perspectives

6.1. Persell Analysis level

6.1.1. Societal

6.1.2. Institution

6.1.3. Interpersonal

6.1.4. Intrapsychic

6.2. B.F. Skinner

6.2.1. Skinner Box

6.3. Functionalism

6.3.1. concerned with the ways that societal and institutional forces create

6.3.2. A collective conscious based on shared values

6.4. How can people create more effeective environments in which children can grow and learn?

6.5. How does teacher interaction with students determine student success?

6.6. Highly Effective schools

6.6.1. Strong Leadership

6.6.2. Safe & orderly environment

6.6.3. Instructions that focus on student achievement

6.6.4. Teacher believe all students can learn

6.6.5. Constant review of student progress

6.7. Schools are agents of cultural social transmission

6.8. Ned Flounders Interaction Analysis

6.8.1. Learning is greatest when teacher influence is indirect

6.9. Functional Theory

6.10. Weber - training individuals for employment of thinking

6.11. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate actual achievement

6.12. Interactional theory

6.12.1. suggest that schools are middle class organizations and lower social classes are at a disadvantage

6.13. effects of schooling on individuals

6.13.1. What people learn

6.13.2. Employment

6.13.3. job performance

6.13.4. income

6.13.5. mobility

6.14. more education results in better jobs and opportunities

6.15. Education is the great equalizer in the status race

6.16. The top 20% in the US possess the 75% of the wealth

6.16.1. The top 2% of the world possess 80% of the wealth

6.17. De Facto Segregation

6.17.1. People segregate themselves into their comfort areas

6.17.2. Racial integration benefits minorities more than the majority

6.17.2.1. Integration does not seem to harm the majority

6.18. Gender Bias

6.18.1. Men are still paid more for equivalent jobs

6.18.2. Academics are leveling between the sexes

6.18.3. Schools are still perpetuating gender inequalities

6.19. Current Educational Crisis

6.19.1. 1/3 of children are at risk of failing

6.19.2. 1/4 of preschool children live in poverty

6.19.3. 15 million are reared by single mothers

7. Education Inequality

7.1. Functionalist theorists support the idea that each student's success is determined by their own hard work.

7.2. Conflict theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their enviroment

7.3. interactionists theorists support that student success is determined by a combo of factors such as family and social class

7.3.1. other factors

7.3.1.1. Student centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture, andthe student

7.3.1.2. School - centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate, and teacher expectations

7.4. student centered explaniations pg. 421

7.4.1. page 421-427

7.4.2. Genetic diffferences pg, 422

7.4.3. Cultural deprivation pg. 423

7.4.4. Cultural differences pg. 423-427

7.5. School centered explanations

7.5.1. school finances

7.5.1.1. page 428

7.5.2. effective schools

7.5.2.1. page 431

7.5.3. between school differences

7.5.3.1. page 433

7.5.3.2. curriculum and pedagology

7.5.4. within school differences

7.5.4.1. page 434

7.5.5. `curriculum and ability grouping

7.5.5.1. page 434-436

7.6. Do schools reproduce inequality?

7.6.1. Answer: no

8. Schools as Organizations

8.1. US Constitution does not provide for education

8.1.1. Each state responsible for education

8.2. US Department of education was created in 1970

8.2.1. Has very tittle power

8.3. If school receives title money then they have to follow federal regulations

8.4. Centralization

8.4.1. 55 million students are educated at the cos of $650 billion

8.4.2. 1930's there were 128,000 public school districts

8.4.3. 1980 Slightly under 16,000 districts in the us

8.5. Student composition in public schools

8.5.1. 53.6% are white

8.5.2. 16 states have less than 50% white

8.5.3. 10 have no minorities

8.5.4. large states are hevially multiracial

8.5.5. NYC 85.6% minority

8.5.6. LA 91.3% minority

8.5.7. Detroit 97.4% minority

8.6. Degree of openness

8.6.1. very few academic impediments exist to graduate high school but many social impediments exist

8.6.2. Very democratic process of education

8.6.3. Open to all and very inclusive

8.7. Private schools

8.7.1. approx 28,200 elementary and and secondary private schools in the U.S.

8.7.2. Private schools constitute 25% of all schools and educate only 10% of students

8.7.3. 1930's there were less than 10,000 private schools

8.7.4. in 2009 there were 21,780 private elementary and secondary schools

8.7.5. Most private schools are located on the east and west coasts

8.7.6. Connecticut has the most and Wyoming has the least

8.7.7. In 1980's and 1990's studies indicate private schools were better learning environments

8.8. In other countries individuals go through rigorous academic rites of passage. This design separates those who can and those that cannot as well as those that have and those that have not

8.9. Schools are separate social organizations because

8.9.1. they have definitive populations

8.9.2. they have political structures

8.9.3. they represent a multitude of social groups

8.9.4. They are prevailed by the "we feeling"

8.9.5. They have their own special culture

8.10. Conflicts within the school

8.10.1. Teachers are in conflict with students. Curriculum v. social goals of students.

8.10.2. Communities are in conflict with admin

8.10.3. Admins and teachers are in conflict. Structure v. teaching

8.10.4. Studies show that the principal establishes the goal levels of academic and social expectations and the effectiveness of dicipline

8.11. Effective change in schools is difficult at its minimum

8.11.1. Changing a school culture requires patience, skill, and good will

8.11.2. Bureaucracies control everything focusing on rules, regulations, and conformity

8.12. Teachers, teaching, and professionalism

8.12.1. High school seniors indicate less than 10% will become a teacher

8.12.2. Look at power point for more info

9. Philosophy

9.1. Pragmatic

9.1.1. John Dewey

9.1.2. Learning through expierence

9.2. Progressivism

9.2.1. Learning through field trips

9.3. Essentialism

9.3.1. Teach across the curriculum

9.3.1.1. Promotion based on mastery

9.4. Perennialism

9.4.1. Emphasis on learning for learning's sake

9.5. Idealism

9.5.1. Instruction

9.5.1.1. Discussion

9.5.1.2. Questioning

9.5.2. All new problems have roots in the past

9.5.3. Socrates and Plato

9.6. Realism

9.6.1. Understand the facts THEN make assumptions

9.6.2. Develop system of logical thinking

9.6.3. Aristotle

10. Curriculum and Pedagogy

10.1. What is taught and how do we teach it?

10.1.1. Do students students actually learn what is taught?

10.1.2. Academic Gap

10.1.2.1. What is learned and what is taught may have a large gap between them.

10.1.2.2. How do we close the gap?

10.1.3. Do all students have the same educational experience even though they attended the same classes?

10.2. Social Influences

10.2.1. Should the wealthy determine the curriculum?

10.2.2. Sociology of the curriculum

10.2.3. Society influences the curriculum

10.2.4. Formal Curriculum - what is cognitively taught (subjects)

10.2.5. Informal or hidden curriculum - taught but not obvious to sight

10.2.6. Null Curriculum - What is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

10.3. Political Influences

10.3.1. Conservatives of the 1980's and 1990's say we should teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture.

10.3.2. Political influences of the curriculum have determine and set battle lines for domination of what should be taught

10.4. Societies' Influences

10.4.1. social Effecienct Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive.

10.4.2. Social Melorist - reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction

10.4.3. Social order determines the curriculum

10.4.4. Multicultural influences on curriculum has promoted a diverse needs classroom

10.4.5. Conservatives argue tat multicultural curriculum has diluted western civilization values. They say we have melted and lost our western cultural identity.

10.5. Cultural Influences

10.5.1. Communities reflect what is important to them as a society

10.6. Special Interests

10.6.1. Other influences on the curriculum

10.6.1.1. Evolutionists

10.6.1.2. Creationists

10.6.1.3. Science and math

10.6.1.4. Nation at Risk

10.6.1.5. NCLB

10.6.1.6. Race to the top

10.7. how will you teach and what determines how you teach?

10.7.1. Maturity includes chronological, social, emotional, Culturally-valued, and political maturity.