Video Production

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Video Production by Mind Map: Video Production

1. Videography

1.1. The Process of capturing movies on electrical media, also called video production

1.1.1. Corporate Video

1.1.1.1. a video whose purpose is to introduce or present a company in a positive light

1.1.2. Television Broadcast

1.1.2.1. ENG—Electronic News Gathering (broadcasting or taping from the site of the news)

1.1.2.2. EFP—Electronic Field Production (a video production which takes place outside the formal television studio

1.1.3. Event Video

1.1.3.1. be created from a sporting, school, stage, wedding, church or other similar event

1.1.4. Marketing Video

1.1.4.1. used to promote an organization or product and create an awareness among customers.

1.1.5. Internet Video

1.1.5.1. Videos you would find on the internet such as YouTube

1.1.6. Production Training Video

1.1.6.1. may be commissioned by an organization to provide instruction for its employees.

1.1.6.2. Also known as instructional videos, they are available commercially on many subjects

2. Careers

2.1. videographer

2.1.1. the actual camera operator or the person in charge of the visual design of a production

2.2. Other careers may include directors, producers, editors, lighting technicians (gaffers), camera operators, sound technicians, animators, multimedia artists, etc

3. Video Settings/Standards

3.1. Choosing the proper standards and settings for a video depend upon the video’s destination: DVD, computer, web, etc.

3.1.1. Resolution

3.1.1.1. also known as frame size; refers to the horizontal and vertical dimensions of a frame

3.1.1.2. DV settings are typically 720x480

3.1.2. Aspect Ratio

3.1.2.1. the relationship between the width and height of an image—or horizontal to vertical

3.1.2.2. 4:3—standard television format

3.1.2.3. 16:9—widescreen TV, DVD and high-definition format

3.1.2.4. 21:9—cinemascope (used for theatrical release movies)

3.1.3. Frame Rate

3.1.3.1. the number of frames recorded per second

3.1.3.2. The standard frame rate (fps) for video is 29.97. It is sometimes described at 30 fps

3.1.4. Broadcast Standards

3.1.4.1. NTSC

3.1.4.1.1. Most of the Americas & Japan

3.1.4.1.2. Uses 4:3 aspect ratio with 29.97 fps

3.1.4.2. PAL

3.1.4.2.1. Most of Europe, except France

3.1.4.2.2. Uses 4:3 aspect ratio with 25 fps

3.1.4.3. SECAM

3.1.4.3.1. Brazil, France, southern Europe, Middle East

3.1.4.3.2. Uses 4:3 aspect ratio with 25 fps

4. Software for Video Production

4.1. Video Editing

4.1.1. Programs used to capture, edit and manipulate video images, add effects, titles and sound to create studio-quality video

4.2. DVD Authoring

4.2.1. Software that will create a DVD that will play in a DVD player

4.3. Conversion

4.3.1. Software that can convert a file from one format to another

5. Common Video File Formats

5.1. .wmv—Windows media video

5.1.1. originally designed to play in Windows media player; compressed

5.2. .avi—audio video interleave

5.2.1. standard Windows video format; typically uncompressed but has the ability to be compressed

5.3. .mpg—motion picture experts group

5.3.1. compressed video format; compressed

5.4. .mov—movie

5.4.1. Quicktime video; compressed

5.5. .asf—advanced streaming format

5.5.1. Microsoft streaming media format; compressed

5.6. .mp4

5.6.1. Mpeg file format used for audio & video streaming; compressed

5.7. .vob—video object

5.7.1. DVD video format

5.8. .swf

5.8.1. Flash; pronounced swiff; compressed

5.9. .m4v

5.9.1. iMovie – iTunes; compressed

5.10. .flv

5.10.1. Flash – common with YouTube videos; compressed

6. Video Cameras

6.1. HDD

6.1.1. takes directly to an internal hard drive.

6.2. Mini-DV

6.2.1. records video to a small tape; 30-60 minutes recording time per tape

6.3. Mini-DVD

6.3.1. records to mini DVD; good if you don’t plan to edit

6.4. Flash drive/memory card

6.4.1. records to flash device

6.5. Hybrid

6.5.1. combines two methods of storage on one camera

7. Accessories

7.1. External microphone

7.1.1. Shotgun—attached to the top of the camera

7.1.2. Handheld--connected to the camera

7.1.3. Lavalier or clip-on—may be wired or wireless

7.1.4. Boom—a directional mic attached to a mechanical arm (boom) that is positioned out of camera range

7.1.5. Wireless microphones

7.2. Tripod

7.2.1. Select a tripod that will support the weight of your camera

7.2.2. Pan and tilt heads are helpful

7.3. Dolly

7.3.1. A rolling base for a tripod

7.4. Lights

7.4.1. Mounted

7.4.2. External

8. Camera Techniques

8.1. Establishing shot

8.1.1. Usually the first shot of a scene; designed to show the audience where the action is taking place

8.2. Low angle

8.2.1. Shows the subject from below—the camera is angled up towards the subject

8.3. High angle

8.3.1. Shows the subject from above—the camera is angled down towards the subject

8.4. Eye-level

8.4.1. Shows the subject as we would expect to see it in real life—from a natural perspective

8.5. Bird’s eye

8.5.1. A scene shot from directly above the action

8.6. Over-the-shoulder

8.6.1. A camera angle that looks at the talking subject from the listener’s perspective (literally, over the shoulder)

8.7. Panning

8.7.1. A camera movement that scans a scene horizontally

8.8. Tilting

8.8.1. A camera movement that scans a scene vertically

8.9. Zooming

8.9.1. Altering the lens to make the subject appear closer or further away

8.10. Cut

8.10.1. A quick move from one scene to another; also called a cutaway

9. Steps to shooting a movie

9.1. Pre-Production

9.1.1. the process of preparing all the elements of a video production

9.1.1.1. Storyboard the idea

9.1.1.1.1. A series of sketches that are used as a planning tool to visually show how the action of a story unfolds.

9.1.1.2. Prepare the equipment

9.1.1.3. Get approval, if required

9.1.1.4. Write the script (the spoken text of a video production)

9.1.1.5. List materials, location, camera angles, etc.

9.2. Production

9.2.1. the process of recording the footage

9.2.1.1. Using your storyboard as a guideline, shoot the footage

9.2.1.2. Footage: raw, unedited material as it is originally recorded

9.2.1.3. Shoot B-roll (cutaway) shots

9.3. Post Production

9.3.1. all phases following the recording of video

9.3.1.1. Capture the video--These steps will be dependent on the type of video camera used

9.3.1.2. Edit the video

9.3.1.3. Add titles, transitions, audio, etc.

9.3.1.4. Export the video: The process of converting project files into one file such as an .avi, wmv, mpg, m4v, etc.