Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Secretary of education Arne Duncan's program, Race to the Top requires states to expand the number of charter schools and to implement Valued Added Models of teacher evaluations.

2. Politics of Education

2.1. Education- systematic way to acquire knowledge and skills in school, from parents, churches, libraries, and many other places.

2.2. Schooling- concerned with the activities that occur in schools.

2.3. Conservative perspective- individual and groups must compete in order to survive.

2.4. Liberal perspective- belief in a market capitalist economy. Primarily concerned with the economic productivity.

2.5. Radical perspective- believes that democratic socialism is fairer political economic system.

2.6. Traditional education- views the schools as necessary for traditional values.

2.7. Progressive education- views the schools as central to solving problems and as a important part of a democratic society.

2.8. The three purposes of schooling are: intellectual, political, and economic.

2.9. President Bush NCLB act-2001 mandated the use of student achievement test to measure school quality.

2.10. Ned Flanders - sociologist that hypothesized that students performance and learning is greatest when teacher influence is indirect.

3. Schools as Organizations

3.1. State Senators: Clay Scofield

3.2. House of Reps: Kerry Rich, Randall Shedd, Will Ainsworth, David Standridge, and Ed Henry

3.3. State Superintendent: Tommy Bice

3.4. Representative on State School Board: Cynthia Sanders Mcarty

3.5. Local Superintendent: Dr. Frederic Ayer

3.6. Local School Board: Mr. Bobby Stewart, Mrs. Sandy Elkins, Mr. Lee Fleming, Mrs. Rory Colvin, Mr. Mike Price.

3.7. When the US Constitution was written, the government was not responsible for education. Education was left up to each state. The government entered into the state's education policies during the 1960's, the Civil Rights movement. The U.S. Department of Education began in the late 1970's. In the U.S. there is a diverse population in the public schools. Half are female. Our public schools are organized as elementary, junior-high, and high school. Most private schools are religious affiliated. There is a separation of church and state.

3.8. The Japanese education system is very competitive. To be admitted to a university students have to pass exams that are very competitive. The Japanese have a very good work ethic. Parents have a high regard for education. The Japanese have a double-schooling type of education. The students are exposed to two educational systems. The traditional public school and the non-formal school which provides tutorial opportunities.

3.9. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is that all schools have highly qualified teachers in every classroom.

3.10. The purpose of the educational system was to create the "new Soviet man and woman."

3.10.1. Included

3.10.2. Included

3.10.3. Excluded

4. History of U.S. Education


4.1.1. Project specifications

4.1.2. End User requirements

4.1.3. Action points sign-off

4.2. The Colonial Era - only the sons of the rich required an education.

4.2.1. Define actions as necessary

4.3. Old Deluder Laws - chastised parents for not attending to their children's ability to read and understand principles of religion.

4.4. The 50 household law - every town that had fifty families would appoint one person to teach all children.

4.5. Thomas Jefferson proposed a bill for the more general diffusion of knowledge, which would provide free education to all children for the first three years of elementary school.

4.6. The Age of Reform - (1820-1860) Andrew Jackson was president, the industrial revolution began. Horace Mann led the struggle for free public education.

4.7. Morrill Act - in 1862 Congress passed the authorized use of public money to establish public land grant universities.

4.8. Education for Women - there role was of homemaker in the 1820's Emma Willard opened a school for women. Later, Catherine Beecher opened schools for women. Educational opportunities were expanding.

4.9. Education for African-Americans - severely limited, education was forbidden.

4.10. John Dewey - philosopher, advocated the creation of curriculum that would allow for the child's interest and developmental level.

4.11. Edward L. Thorndike - opposite side of child-centered reform placed his emphasis on the organisms response to its environment.

5. Sociological Perspectives


5.2. Socialization - schools, parents, churches, and other groups shape children perceptions of the world.

5.3. Theory - an integration of all known principles, laws, and information pertaining to a specific area of study.

5.4. Emile Durkheim - invented the sociology of education, recognized that education had taken different forms at different times and places. Moral values were the foundation of society.

5.5. Karl Marx - the intellectual fonder of the conflict school in the sociology of education.

5.6. Max Weber - he examined cultures and found that people identify their group with whom they socialize.

5.7. Randall Collins - he argued that education credentials such as college diplomas are primarily status symbols.

5.8. Lareau - conflict theorist, theory of how family and their relationships to child rearing and schooling contribute to social and educational inequalities.

5.9. Basil Bernstein - conflict theorist, analyzed how communication and family contribute to social and educational inequalities.

5.10. The three effects of education that I think have the greatest impact on students are: academic programs, technology available, and resources available to the teachers and students.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Michael F.D. Young and Basil Bernstein (new sociology of education) looked at the curriculum as a reflection of the dominant interests in society.

6.1.1. Materials

6.1.2. Personel

6.1.3. Services

6.1.4. Duration

6.2. Kliebard - defines four different types of curriculum.

6.3. Humanist curriculum - is the traditional liberal arts.

6.4. Social efficiency curriculum - different groups of students with different sets of needs should receive different types of schooling. (John Dewey)

6.5. Developmentalist curriculum - relates to the needs and interest of the students.

6.6. Social meliorist curriculum - social reconstruction, role of the school in reforming society.

6.7. The hidden curriculum includes what is taught to students through implicit rules and messages.

6.8. Formal curriculum - subject matter to be learned.

6.9. James Banks - a writer on multicultural education gives five dimensions of multiculturalism: content integration, knowledge construction, prejudice reduction, equity pedagogy, and empowering school culture.

6.10. Culturally relevant pedagogy - characteristics include high self esteem, belief that all students can succeed, help students make connection between community, national, and global and see teaching as pulling knowledge out.


7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Social stratification - a hierarchical configuration of families who have differential access to whatever is of value in the society at a given point and over time.

7.1.1. Dependencies

7.1.2. Milestones

7.2. Three forms of social stratification - caste, estate, and class.

7.3. Caste stratification - race and/or religious worth.

7.3.1. Schedule

7.3.2. Budget

7.4. Estate stratification - the hierarchy of family worth.

7.5. Class stratification - a hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals.

7.5.1. KPI's

7.6. Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) began in the 1930's as an unofficial college entrance exam created by Henry Chauncey.

7.7. In 1975 Congress passed the Education of All Handicapped Children Law (FHA)

7.8. The regular education initiative (REI) called for mainstreaming children with disabilities into regular classrooms or inclusion.

7.9. Two hypothesis concerning the relationship between characteristics and student outcomes are - strong correlation between school quality and student achievement. There is a very weak relationship between school characteristics and student outcomes.

7.10. Coleman Study 1966 - sociologist James Coleman, studied the relationship between the organizational characteristics of schools and student achievement.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Two major sociological theories of education - functionalists and conflict theorists.

8.2. Functionalists believe that the roll of school is to provide a fair and meritocratic selection process for sorting out the best and brightest regardless of family background.

8.3. Conflict theorists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce rather than eliminate inequality.

8.4. Equality of Educational Opportunity (1966) - or the Coleman Report, suggested that it was the differences among the groups of students that had the greater impact on educational performance.

8.5. Project Head Start - preschool intervention program for educational and economically disadvantaged students.

8.6. John Ogbu - anthropologist, suggests that African American students deny their cultural identities and accept the dominant culture of the school.

8.7. Jonathan Kozol - documented the vast differences in funding between affluent and poor districts and called for equalization in school financing.

8.8. Catholic schools were shown to produce significant better levels of academic achievement because of their rigorous academic curriculum and higher academic expectations.

8.9. Two within school differences - curriculum and ability grouping.

8.10. Curriculum grouping is often in the elementary schools, similar curriculum, but different groups. Ability grouping often in the secondary school, students receive different types of education, but at the same school.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. NCLB and RTT placed accountability at the forefront of reforms aimed at reducing the achievement gap.

9.2. 1st wave of reform concerned primarily with the issue of accountability and achievement

9.3. The second wave of reform, was targeted at the structure and processes of the schools themselves, placing far more control in the hands of local schools, teachers, and communities.

9.4. Goals 2000 was a direct outgrowth of the state-led education reform agenda of the 1980s, which included increasing high school graduation requirements, particularly in math and science.

9.5. The No Child Left Behind Act is a landmark and controversial piece of legislation that had far reaching consequences for education in the United States.

9.6. President Barack Obama established the Race to the Top Fund, the primary goal of this was to aid states in meeting the various components of NCLB.


9.8. The Broader Bolder Approach, stresses that school level reform alone is necessary but insufficient, and that societal and community level reforms are necessary.

9.9. The Education Equality Project is to eliminate the achievement gap by "working to create an effective school for every child."

9.10. Charter schools are public schools that are free from many of the regulations applied to traditional public schools, and in return are held accountable for student performance, they "swap red tape for results."

9.11. In the 1990s, a number of states, implemented school voucher programs.

10. Philosophy of Education

10.1. Idealism - Greek philosopher, Plato - the search for truth through ideas.

10.2. Platonic philosophers - Socrates and Plato's

10.3. Modern Idealists - St. Augustine, Descartes, Kant, and Hegel. added religion to classical idealism.

10.4. Realism - follows the same historical traditional as idealism, associated with Plato and Aristotle. Aristotle developed a systematic theory of logic.

10.5. Aristotle Systematic Theory of Logic - empirical research, dialectic reasoning, syllogism.

10.6. Neo-Thomism - Thomas Aquinas - a way of resolving the conflict between the natural sciences and the catholic church.

10.7. Modern Realism - Francis Bacon - developed the inductive or scientific method of learning.

10.8. Contemporary Realists - focus on science and philosophy.

10.9. Pragmatism - American philosophy developed by Peirce, James, and Dewey. A philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired ends.

10.10. Existentialism and Phenomenology - existentialism believed that individuals are placed on this earth alone and must make sense out of the chaos they encounter. Phenomenology concerned with they way in which objects present themselves to people in their consciousness.